The oldest part of the village of Oosterbeek is the Benedendorp (Lower Village), on the northern bank of the river Rhine. Parts of the church now known as the Hervormde Kerk (Reformed Church) date back to the second half of the 10th century.
In the 19th century several mansions were built on the higher ground to the north of the old village, such as De Hemelse Berg (destroyed in 1944) and Hartenstein. The construction of smaller buildings in the same area eventually led to the Bovendorp (Upper Village).
Today, Oosterbeek is probably best known for being involved in and heavily damaged during the September 1944 Operation Market Garden. General Urquhart had his headquarters in the aforementioned Hartenstein, which is now home to the Airborne Museum. To the north of the built-up area lies the Airborne Cemetery.
Oosterbeek was a separate municipality until 1818, when the area was divided between Doorwerth and Renkum.