However over the last 15 years a third setup has quickly risen through the ranks and has become at least as large as the above two setups. This is the formula based class setup. The mini 650s, also known as mini transats, the open 70's monohulls, the large ORMA trimarans and the Formula 18 racing beach catamarans are the exponents of this new approach. The two setups are often confused with each other as in both setups class legal boats race each other without any handicap calculations. However under One-design the boats are virtually identical except in details while the Formula setup allows the boats to differ much more in design while keeping a few important specifications the same. As a result the identifier "One-Design" has been used more and more exclusively to denote a class that races only identical boats.
One-Design is utilized in a variety of racing sports. Primarily it refers to sailing, where the One-Design Class Council creates, monitors, and enforces the rules that define what classes of sailboats are One-Design boats. It can additionally refer to airplanes or motor vehicles, such as IndyCars, where teams are required to meet certain specifications such as vehicle weight, engine displacement, weight, fuel capacity, and a variety of other factors are measured and regulated, or classes limited to a single make, such as the Yamaha RD Cup.
In motorsport, this term is commonly known as one-make racing and this term is predominantly given to series for production based cars such as the Porsche Supercup.
As a general rule, the tolerances are strictest in smaller boats like dinghy classes and small keelboats. All one-design classes will have a class association that will determine the measurement rules for the class. Olympic one-design classes have some of the strictest tolerances, for example Laser, Finn, Star, and the former Olympic class Soling.
For classes where the boats are physically smaller, this might mean that everything is designed and produced at the same factory, or by only licensed manufacturer in any country or region, so that all racing vehicles have identical parts. Examples of this include the Laser, Melges 24, Jet 14, 49er, or Town Class boats. This is also true of the larger International One Design.
In medium- to large-sized boat classes, One-Design would refer to conformance to a standard specification, with the possibility of alterations being allowed as long as they remained within certain tolerances. Examples of this are the J/24, Puddle Duck Racer, Tartan 10, Etchells, J105, and the Farr 40. After the hull length overall (LOA) exceeds 27 feet, people generally refer to the boat as an offshore one-design boat or yacht.
In other classes, the one-design class may have organized around an existing fleet of similar boats that traditionally existed together often for commercial purposes such as sailing canoes, dhows, and skipjacks, or boats that developed a common hull form over the years (such as A-Scows).
In contrast to 'one-design', other offshore sailboats race under a variety of handicapping rules and formulas developed to allow different type boats to compete against one another. Handicap rules include Portsmouth Yardstick, PHRF (originally Pacific Handicap Rule Formula, now Performance Handicap Rule Formula), IOR, IMS, IRC, Americap.
There have been several attempts to bring the advantages of one-design to the sport of competitive glider racing. The most successful of these has been the Schweizer 1-26 class with 700 aircraft completed and flown between 1954-1981.
Schweizer Aircraft principal Paul A Schweizer was a proponent of the One-Design concept. He intended the company's 1-26 to be the aircraft to establish a one-design class in the United States. He wrote:
"The true measure of pilot ability and experience is usually shown by his final standing in a contest. What could be more indicative of this when pilots are flying identical sailplanes with identical performance. One design competition is the sure test of soaring skill."
Where the Money Goes: The Sale of Luxuries Is Often a Good Parker of How an Economy Is Faring, since They Are Usually the First to Be Sacrificed When Belts Have to Be Tightened
Jan 01, 2010; [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Saudi Arabia, traditionally the strongest market for luxury cars, still accounts for 50% of the region's...