is a compound with the general formula (C5
M consisting of two cyclopentadienyl
anions (Cp) bound to a metal center in the oxidation state II. Closely related to the metallocenes are the metallocene derivatives, e.g. titanocene dichloride
. Certain metallocenes and their derivatives are exhibit catalytic
properties, although metallocenes are rarely used industrially. Cationic group 4 metallocene derivatives related to [Cp2
catalyze olefin polymerization
. Metallocenes are a subset of a broader class of organometallic compounds called sandwich compounds
The general name metallocene is derived from ferrocene
, systematically named bis(η5
)iron(II). According to the IUPAC
definition, a metallocene contains a transition metal
and two cyclopentadienyl ligands coordinated in a sandwich structure,
i. e., the two cyclopentadienyl anions are co-planar
with equal bond lengths
and strengths. Using the nomenclature of "hapticity
," the equivalent bonding of all 5 carbon atoms of a cyclopentadienyl ring is denoted as η5
, pronounced "pentahapto."
In contrast to the more strict definition proposed by IUPAC, which requires a d-block metal and a sandwich structure, the term metallocene and thus the denotation -ocene, is applied in the chemical literature also to non-transition metal compounds, such as Cp2Ba, or structures where the aromatic rings are not co-planar, such as found in manganocene or titanocene dichloride, Cp2TiCl2.
Physical properties and structures of metallocenes
A notable feature of some metallocenes is their high thermal stability. Charge-neutral metallocenes are soluble in common organic solvents and can generally be purified by vacuum sublimation
In metallocenes of the type (C5R5)2M, the two cyclopentadienyl rings can be either eclipsed or staggered, as indicated by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. For non-substituted metallocenes the energy difference between the staggered and eclipsed conformations is only a few kJ/mol. Ferrocene and osmocene exhibit eclipsed conformations at low temperatures, whereas in the related bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes the rings are in a staggered conformation to minimize steric hindrance between the methyl groups.
- ansa metallocenes: Derivatives of metallocenes include structures with an intramolecular bridge between the two cyclopentadienyl rings (ansa-metallocenes)
- Triple decker complexes: compounds with three Cp anions and two metal cations in alternating order, e.g. [Ni2Cp3]+.
- metallocenium cations: the most famous example is ferrocenium, [Fe(C5H5)2]+, derived from oxidation of ferrocene.
- A. Salzer (1999). "Nomenclature of Organometallic Compounds of the Transition Elements". Pure Appl. Chem. 71 (8): 1557–1585.
- Robert H. Crabtree The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals 4th ed. Wiley-Interscience: 2005.