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Norris, George W(illiam)

Norris, George W(illiam)

(born July 11, 1861, Sandusky, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 2, 1944, McCook, Neb.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1903 to 1913. In the U.S. Senate (1913–43) he drafted the 20th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished the so-called lame-duck session of Congress. He also worked for the introduction of presidential primaries and for direct election of U.S. senators. He introduced the bill establishing the Tennessee Valley Authority and coauthored the Norris-La Guardia Act, which restricted the use of injunctions in labour disputes. An independent Republican, he said he “would rather be right than regular.”

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George William Norris (July 11, 1861September 2, 1944) was a U.S. leader of progressive and liberal causes in Congress. He represented the state of Nebraska in the United States Senate from 1913 until 1943.

Norris was born in 1861 in York Township, Sandusky County, Ohio and was the eleventh child of poor, uneducated, unchurched farmers of Scots-Irish and Pennsylvania Dutch descent. He graduated from Baldwin University and took an LL.B. degree in 1883 at the law school of Valparaiso University. He moved to a prosperous town in Nebraska, Beaver City, to practice law. In 1889 he married Pluma Lashley, who died in 1901; they had three daughters. He married Ellie Leonard in 1903; they had no children.

Political career

Norris relocated to the larger town of McCook in 1900, where he became active in local politics. He was elected to the House of Representatives as a Republican in 1902, with railroad support. He broke with them in 1906 and supported Theodore Roosevelt's plans to regulate rates for the benefit of shippers, such as the merchants who lived in his district. A prominent insurgent after 1908, he led the revolt against Speaker Joseph G. Cannon in 1910. By a vote of 191 to 156, the House created a new system in which seniority would automatically move members ahead, not the wishes of the leadership.

In January 1911, he helped create The National Progressive Republican League and was its vice president. He originally supported Robert La Follette, Sr. for the 1912 nomination, then switched to Roosevelt. He refused to bolt the convention and join Roosevelt's Progressive Party and instead ran for the Senate as a Republican. As a leading Progressive Republican, Norris supported the direct election of senators and also the conversion of all state legislatures to the unicameral system, which was eventually implemented in 1934 in the Nebraska Legislature.

Norris supported some of Wilson's programs but became a die-hard isolationist, who feared bankers were manipulating the country into war. In the face of enormous pressure from the media and the administration, Norris was one of only six senators to vote against the declaration of war on Germany in 1917. He joined the "irreconcilables" who vehemently opposed and defeated the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations in 1919.

Seniority brought him the chairmanship of the Agriculture and Forestry and the Judiciary committees. Norris was a leader of the Farm Bloc, advocated the rights of labor, and proposed to abolish the Electoral College. He failed on these issues in the 1920s, but did block Henry Ford's proposals to modernize the Tennessee Valley, insisting that it be a project the government should handle. Although a nominal Republican (which was essential to his seniority), he routinely attacked and voted against the Republican administrations of Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. Norris supported Democrats Al Smith in 1928 and Franklin Roosevelt in 1932. Republicans regulars called him one of the "sons of the wild jackass."

In 1932, along with Rep. Fiorello H. La Guardia, Norris secured passage of the Norris-La Guardia Act, which outlawed the practice of requiring prospective employees not to join a labor union as a condition of employment (the so-called yellow-dog contract) and greatly limited the use of court injunctions against strikes.

A staunch supporter of President Roosevelt's New Deal programs, Norris sponsored the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933. In appreciation, the TVA Norris Dam and a new planned city in Tennessee were named after him. Norris was also the prime Senate mover behind the Rural Electrification Act that brought electrical service to under-served and unserved rural areas across the United States.

Norris left the GOP in 1936 (since seniority in the minority party was useless, and the Democrats offered him chairmanships) and was re-elected to the Senate as an Independent with Democratic Party support in 1936.

Norris opposed Roosevelt's plan to pack the Supreme Court, and railed against corrupt patronage. He was a half-hearted isolationist in from 1939 until 1941. Unable to secure Democratic support in the state in 1942, he was defeated by Republican Kenneth S. Wherry.

He is one of the 8 senators profiled in John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage.

Memorials

The main north south road in McCook, Nebraska is named after George Norris. It is called Norris Avenue.

References

Bibliography

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