Norris

Norris

[nawr-is, nor-]
Norris, Charles Gilman: see Norris, Frank.
Norris, Edwin, 1795-1872, English philologist. Norris wrote a number of articles on little-known languages of Asia and Africa. His most important work was his uncompleted Assyrian Dictionary (3 vol., 1868-72), which is a landmark in the history of cuneiform lexicography.
Norris, Frank (Benjamin Franklin Norris), 1870-1902, American novelist, b. Chicago. After studying in Paris, at the Univ. of California (1890-94), and at Harvard, he spent several years as a war correspondent in South Africa (1895-96) and Cuba (1898). His proletarian novel McTeague (1899) was influenced by the experimental naturalism of Zola. His most impressive works were two parts of a proposed novelistic trilogy entitled "The Epic of Wheat"—The Octopus (1901), depicting the brutal struggle between wheat farmers and the railroad, and The Pit (1903), dealing with speculation on the Chicago grain market. The trilogy and Norris's burgeoning literary career were cut short by his death from a ruptured appendix. The Responsibilities of the Novelist (1903). an essay collection, contains his idealistic views on the role of the writer.

See biography by J. R. McElrath, Jr. and J. S. Crisler (2005); study by B. Hochman (1988).

Norris, George William, 1861-1944, American legislator, b. Sandusky co., Ohio. After admission to the bar in 1883, he moved (1885) to Furnas co., Nebr., where he practiced law and was prosecuting attorney and then (1895-1902) judge of the district court. From 1903 to 1913 he served in the U.S. House of Representatives. A liberal Republican, Norris secured (1910), through an alliance of insurgent Republicans with Democrats, the passage of a resolution that reformed the House rules and wrested absolute control from the speaker of the House, Joseph G. Cannon. Elected (1912) to the U.S. Senate, he opposed President Wilson's foreign policy, voted against U.S. participation in World War I, and denounced the Treaty of Versailles. He was at constant odds with the Coolidge administration, backed (1928) Democrat Alfred E. Smith for President, and favored President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's domestic and foreign policies. Norris was read out of the Republican party and became (1936) an independent. He was author (1932) of the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, which abolished the "lame duck" session of Congress and changed the date of the presidential inauguration. He sponsored (1932) the Norris-La Guardia Act, which forbade the use of injunctions in labor disputes to prevent strikes, boycotts, or picketing. An advocate of government water power development, he fathered the bills that created (1933) the Tennessee Valley Authority. He also supported farm relief measures. After serving 30 years in the Senate, he was defeated for reelection in 1942. His Fighting Liberal (1945, repr. 1961) is autobiographical.

See R. Lowitt, George W. Norris: The Triumph of a Progressive, 1933-1944 (1978); biography by N. L. Zucker (1966).

Norris, John, 1657-1711, English clergyman and philosopher. As the most prominent follower of Malebranche he wrote, in exposition of that philosopher's system, An Essay towards the Theory of the Ideal or Intelligible World (1701-4). Previously he had been one of the earliest critics of Locke's Essay on Human Understanding. His writings also show a decided Platonic influence. Among his works are A Collection of Miscellanies (1687) and An Account of Reason and Faith (1697).

See F. I. MacKinnon, The Philosophy of John Norris (1910).

(born July 11, 1861, Sandusky, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 2, 1944, McCook, Neb.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1903 to 1913. In the U.S. Senate (1913–43) he drafted the 20th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished the so-called lame-duck session of Congress. He also worked for the introduction of presidential primaries and for direct election of U.S. senators. He introduced the bill establishing the Tennessee Valley Authority and coauthored the Norris-La Guardia Act, which restricted the use of injunctions in labour disputes. An independent Republican, he said he “would rather be right than regular.”

Learn more about Norris, George W(illiam) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 5, 1870, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Oct. 25, 1902, San Francisco, Calif.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. Norris initially worked as an overseas correspondent and in publishing. He became the first important American author to embrace naturalism. McTeague (1899) is a portrait of an acquisitive society. He adopted a more humanitarian ideal beginning with his masterpiece, The Octopus (1901), the first novel of a projected trilogy dealing with the economic and social forces involved in the wheat industry. The second part, The Pit, appeared in 1903, but the third was unwritten at his death. Despite romanticizing tendencies, his works present a vivid, authentic picture of life in California in his day.

Learn more about Norris, (Benjamin) Frank(lin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 11, 1861, Sandusky, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 2, 1944, McCook, Neb.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1903 to 1913. In the U.S. Senate (1913–43) he drafted the 20th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished the so-called lame-duck session of Congress. He also worked for the introduction of presidential primaries and for direct election of U.S. senators. He introduced the bill establishing the Tennessee Valley Authority and coauthored the Norris-La Guardia Act, which restricted the use of injunctions in labour disputes. An independent Republican, he said he “would rather be right than regular.”

Learn more about Norris, George W(illiam) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

The Norris-La Guardia Act (also known as the Anti-Injunction Bill) of 1932 was a United States federal law that made yellow-dog contracts, or those in which a worker agreed as a condition of employment that he would not join a labor union, unenforceable in federal court; the common title followed from the names of the sponsors of the legislation: Republican Senator George Norris of Nebraska and Representative Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York. The act established as United States law that employees should be free to form unions without employer interferences and also withdrew from the federal courts jurisdiction relative to the issuance of injunctions in nonviolent Labor disputess.

Section 13A of the act was fully applied by the Supreme Court of the United States in New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co., in which, in an opinion authored by Justice Owen Roberts, the Court held that the act meant to prohibit employers from proscribing the peaceful dissemination of information concerning the terms and conditions of employment by those involved in an active labor dispute, even when such dissemination occurs on employer property.

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