Norman

Norman

[nawr-muhn]
Chandler, Norman: see under Chandler, family.
Podhoretz, Norman, 1930-, American editor and essayist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. As editor in chief (1960-95) of Commentary, he turned the Jewish monthly into an influential forum for social criticism and American neoconservatism. He subsequently became a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute, a think tank. He has written several memoirs, including Making It (1967), which traces his rise to power among New York intellectuals, and Breaking Ranks (1979), which explains his switch from liberalism to neoconservatism. The Norman Podhoretz Reader (2004, ed. by T. L. Jeffers) compiles selections from his writings. His World War IV: The Long Struggle against Islamofascism (2007) outlines Podhoretz's aggressively neoconservative approach to American policy in the Middle East and his unflagging support of President George W. Bush.
Mailer, Norman (Norman Kingsley Mailer), 1923-2007, American writer, b. Long Branch, N.J., grad. Harvard, 1943. He grew up in Brooklyn, N.Y., served in the army during World War II, and at the age of 25 published The Naked and the Dead (1948). A partially autobiographical bestseller, it was one of the most significant novels to emerge from the war and it catapulted Mailer to literary fame. His next two novels, Barbary Shore (1951) and The Deer Park (1955), were generally considered failures. More successful was An American Dream (1966), an exploration of sex, violence, and death in America—themes that Mailer was to revisit throughout his career—through the experiences of his semiautobiographical protagonist.

Mailer, who tended to view himself and his fictional protagonists in a heroic mode, was very much a public figure—pugnacious, self-promoting, and articulate, with a distinctive candid charm. He made frequent appearances at public events, in forums, and on television talk shows, making a variety of often controversial public pronouncements—aesthetic, philosophical, and political. In 1955 Mailer was one of the founders of The Village Voice newspaper, and in 1961 he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of New York City.

The Armies of the Night (1968; Pulitzer Prize), a dramatic account of the 1967 anti-Vietnam War march on Washington, D.C., is one of the earliest works to make use of the personalized style that came to be called New Journalism and is one of Mailer's most significant books. In it and in later books and essays, he pioneered the usage of novelistic techniques in nonfiction works. Among his other journalistic works are Miami and the Siege of Chicago (1969), on the 1968 Republican and Democratic conventions; A Fire on the Moon (1971), an account of the Apollo 11 moon flight; and the brilliantly novelistic The Executioner's Song (1979, Pulitzer Prize), the epic story of the life and execution of killer Gary Gilmore, a book that many consider his masterpiece. The Prisoner of Sex (1971) is Mailer's generally oppositional response to the women's liberation movement. He also wrote "interpretive biographies," Oswald's Tale (1995), a study of the life of President Kennedy's assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, and Portrait of Picasso as a Young Man (1995), on the youth of Pablo Picasso.

Mailer's later novels tend to be long and intricate, and they met with decidedly mixed reviews: Ancient Evenings (1983), which Mailer considered his best book, is set in pharaonic Egypt; Harlot's Ghost (1991) is a complex cold-war spy novel; and The Castle in the Forest (2007) is a fictional exploration of the boyhood of Adolf Hitler. A shorter detective novel, Tough Guys Don't Dance (1984), was made into a film in 1985. He also wrote, directed, and acted in several movies, e.g., Maidstone (1970). Among his other works are the nonfiction The White Negro (1958), Advertisements for Myself (1959), and Marilyn (1973), a study of Marilyn Monroe.

See the large retrospective anthology of his work, The Time of Our Time (1998), and anthology of his writings on writing, The Spooky Art (2003); biographies by H. Mills (1982), P. Manso (1986), C. Rollyson (1991), and M. V. Dearborn (1999); J. M. Lennon, ed., Pontifications: Interviews (1982) and Conversations with Norman Mailer (1988); studies by B. H. Leeds (1969, 2002), L. Braudy, ed. (1972), R. Poirier (1972), J. Radford (1975), R. Merrill (1978, 1992), S. Cohen (1979), J. M. Lennon, ed. (1986), H. Bloom, ed. (1986, repr. 2003), J. Wenke (1987), N. Leigh (1990), M. K. Glenday (1995), B. H. Leeds (2002); bibliography by B. Sokoloff (1985).

Bel Geddes, Norman, 1893-1958, American designer, b. Adrian, Mich. as Norman Melancton Geddes. He began his career in 1918 as scene designer for the Metropolitan Opera. He became known for imaginative designs both for the New York stage and for numerous industrial products. Geddes also designed several theaters and other buildings in the United States and abroad.

See his posthumous Miracle in the Evening (1960).

His daughter, Barbara Bel Geddes, 1922-2005, b. New York City, an actress, created the role of Maggie the Cat in Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) and the title role in Jean Kerr's Mary, Mary (1961). Her film work included Elia Kazan's Panic in the Streets (1950) and Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo (1958). She also had a leading role in the 1970s and 80s in the television series Dallas.

Norman, Greg (Gregory John Norman), 1955-, Australian golfer, b. Mt. Isa, Queensland. Noted for his power, the "White Shark," a professional since 1976, is tremendously popular with the gallery. Although he has won dozens of tournaments, the 1986 and 1993 British Opens are his only major victories, and he is famous for losing leads in the final round, most notably in the 1996 Masters. Norman won the 1994 Vardon Trophy for the lowest scoring average on the Professional Golfers Association tour. In 1995 he became the PGA's leading career money winner.
Norman, Jessye, 1945-, American soprano, b. Augusta, Ga. Making her early reputation in Europe, Norman won the Munich competition in 1968, debuted in Tannhäuser in 1969 with the Berlin Opera, and was a great success as Aïda at Milan's La Scala and London's Covent Garden in 1972. She made her American debut in 1982 as Jocasta in Oedipus Rex and her Metropolitan Opera debut the following year as Cassandra in Les Troyens. A majestic diva and extremely successful recording artist, she is praised for her enormous vocal power, tonal warmth, and clarity of diction. One of the most acclaimed musical artists of the late 20th cent., Norman commands a broad operatic repertoire and also frequently performs concerts of lieder, spirituals, oratorios, and a variety of other works.
Norman, Montagu Collet, 1st Baron Norman of St. Clere, 1871-1950, English financier. He was governor of the Bank of England from 1920 to 1944, a tenure of office that broke all tradition. He long favored the gold standard, first supporting its retention and later its return. Norman was raised to the peerage in 1944.

See biographies by Sir Henry Clay (1957) and A. Boyle (1968).

Norman, city (1990 pop. 80,071), seat of Cleveland co., central Okla.; inc. 1891. It is the center of a livestock region. Oil wells, food processing, and printing and publishing contribute to the economy, and there is diverse manufacturing (machinery, communication equipment, nutritional products, and consumer goods). Norman is the seat of the Univ. of Oklahoma. The city's population grew considerably in the late 20th cent.
Macleod, Norman, 1812-72, Scottish clergyman. He was one of the foremost preachers of his time and was also noted for his work among the poor of Glasgow. He was editor (1860-72) of Good Words, to which he contributed many stories. His works include Eastward (1866) and Reminiscences of a Highland Parish (1867).

See the memoir (1876) by his brother, D. Macleod.

Cousins, Norman, 1915-90, American editor and author, b. Union City, N.J. He was (1934-35) a newspaper editorial writer and historical magazine editor (1935-40) before beginning his long association with the Saturday Review magazine. Under his direction (1942-71; 1973-77) it expanded from a literary magazine to a review of all aspects of contemporary life. Cousins was an advocate of various liberal causes, particularly of nuclear disarmament, which he promoted as a writer and a citizen-activist. His books include Modern Man Is Obsolete (1945), Who Speaks for Man? (1953), and Present Tense (1967). After his successful battle with a life-threatening illness, he became convinced of the value of positive attitudes and behaviors on human healing. He dealt with this subjects in such books as Anatomy of an Illness (1979), The Healing Heart (1983), and Head First: The Biology of Hope (1989).
Lindsay, Norman, 1879-1969, Australian cartoonist. Born into an eminent family of Australian artists, Lindsay became chief cartoonist of the Sydney Bulletin in 1901. His vigorous illustrations include watercolors, lithographs, and etchings. His drawings have been collected in several volumes.
Rockwell, Norman, 1894-1978, American illustrator, b. New York City. An enormously popular illustrator, Rockwell specialized in warm and humorous scenes of everyday small-town life. Best known for his magazine covers, notably for the Saturday Evening Post, he developed a style of finely drawn realism with a wealth of anecdotal detail. Rockwell's poster series on the Four Freedoms was widely circulated during World War II. The artist lived the last 25 years of his life in Stockbridge, Mass., where a large museum devoted to his work opened in 1993.

See his autobiography (1960); biographical study by T. S. Buechner (1970); biography by L. Claridge (2001).

Douglas, Norman (George Norman Douglas), 1868-1952, British novelist and essayist, b. Scotland. He spent the years from 1894 to 1896 in diplomatic service in Russia but resigned from the foreign service in 1896. His masterpiece, South Wind (1917), which is set on Nepenthe, an invented Mediterranean island much like Capri, satirizes everything from colonial history to conventional morality. Other works include Old Calabria (1915), In the Beginning (1927), and Good-bye to Western Culture (1930). Written in a witty, conversational style, all Douglas's works reveal his erudition and his genuine appreciation of the Mediterranean area.

See biography by N. Cunard (1954); studies by R. M. Dawkins (1952) and R. D. Lindeman (1965).

(born Aug. 21, 1936, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1999, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. basketball player, one of the greatest offensive players in basketball history. The 7-ft 1-in. (2.16-m) Chamberlain played two years (1956–58) for the University of Kansas. “Wilt the Stilt” later played centre for the Philadelphia (later Golden State) Warriors (1959–65), the Philadelphia 76ers (1965–68), and the Los Angeles Lakers (1968–73). In the 1961–62 season he became the first player to score more than 4,000 points in regular-season NBA games, including a record 100 points in a single game (1962). He led the NBA in scoring seven consecutive years (1959–65) and in rebounding 11 times. He ranks first in career rebounds (23,924) and career rebounding average (22.9 per game).

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(born Nov. 20, 1884, Marion, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 19, 1968, Huntington, N.Y.) U.S. social reformer and politician. He was ordained a Presbyterian minister and became pastor of New York's East Harlem Church. He joined the Socialist Party in 1918 and left his parish post to become secretary of the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation. He helped found the American Civil Liberties Union and served as codirector of the League for Industrial Democracy (1922–37). He was the Socialist Party's candidate for governor (1924), for mayor of New York (1925, 1929), and for U.S. president (1928–48), and he headed the party from 1926. After World War II, as chairman of the Postwar World Council, he campaigned for nuclear disarmament.

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(born Aug. 22, 1934, Trenton, N.J., U.S.) U.S. army commander. The son of a brigadier general, he graduated from West Point and fought in the Vietnam War (1965–66, 1969–70). After various other assignments, he was promoted to major general (1983) and commanded forces in the invasion of Grenada. In 1988 he became a four-star general and commander of the U.S. Central Command, which included operations in the Middle East. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, he directed the buildup of 700,000 U.S. and allied troops in Saudi Arabia and commanded the successful Desert Storm operations in the Persian Gulf War (1991), after which he retired from active service.

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(born Feb. 3, 1894, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 8, 1978, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. illustrator. He studied at the Art Students League and received his first freelance assignment at 17. From 1916 to 1963 he produced 317 covers for The Saturday Evening Post. Most of his works are humorous treatments of idealized small-town and family life. During World War II, posters of his Four Freedoms were distributed by the Office of War Information. Though loved by the public, Rockwell's work was often dismissed by critics. Late in his career, he turned to more serious subjects (e.g., a series on racism for Look magazine) and began to receive more serious attention, and in the 1990s his critical reputation enjoyed a positive reassessment.

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(born Sept. 15, 1945, Augusta, Ga., U.S.) U.S. soprano. She won the Munich International Music Competition in 1968 and debuted in Berlin as Elisabeth in Tannhäuser (1969). She appeared at La Scala, Milan, in 1972 and made recital debuts in London and New York City the next year. Having garnered extraordinary praise for years, she made her Metropolitan Opera debut in Les Troyens in 1983, confirming her reputation as perhaps the greatest soprano of her generation. An imposing stage presence with a vibrant and flexible voice, her operatic and concert repertoire encompasses an exceptionally wide range.

Learn more about Norman, Jessye with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 3, 1894, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 8, 1978, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. illustrator. He studied at the Art Students League and received his first freelance assignment at 17. From 1916 to 1963 he produced 317 covers for The Saturday Evening Post. Most of his works are humorous treatments of idealized small-town and family life. During World War II, posters of his Four Freedoms were distributed by the Office of War Information. Though loved by the public, Rockwell's work was often dismissed by critics. Late in his career, he turned to more serious subjects (e.g., a series on racism for Look magazine) and began to receive more serious attention, and in the 1990s his critical reputation enjoyed a positive reassessment.

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(born Nov. 20, 1884, Marion, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 19, 1968, Huntington, N.Y.) U.S. social reformer and politician. He was ordained a Presbyterian minister and became pastor of New York's East Harlem Church. He joined the Socialist Party in 1918 and left his parish post to become secretary of the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation. He helped found the American Civil Liberties Union and served as codirector of the League for Industrial Democracy (1922–37). He was the Socialist Party's candidate for governor (1924), for mayor of New York (1925, 1929), and for U.S. president (1928–48), and he headed the party from 1926. After World War II, as chairman of the Postwar World Council, he campaigned for nuclear disarmament.

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Mailer, 1968

(born Jan. 31, 1923, Long Branch, N.J., U.S.—died Nov. 10, 2007, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist. He studied at Harvard University. He drew on his wartime service in the Pacific for his novel The Naked and the Dead (1948), which established him as one of the major American writers of the post-World War II decades. A flamboyant and controversial figure who enjoyed antagonizing critics and readers, he became best known for journalistic works that convey actual events with the richness of novels, an approach known as New Journalism; these works include The Armies of the Night (1968, Pulitzer Prize), Miami and the Siege of Chicago (1968), Of a Fire on the Moon (1970), and The Executioner's Song (1979, Pulitzer Prize). His novels include An American Dream (1965); Harlot's Ghost (1991), about the Central Intelligence Agency; and The Castle in the Forest (2007), about Adolf Hitler.

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(born March 25, 1914, Cresco, Iowa, U.S.) U.S. agricultural scientist and plant pathologist. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota. As a researcher with the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico (1944–60), he developed strains of grain that tripled Mexican wheat production. Later his dwarf wheats raised harvests in Pakistan and India by 60percnt, ending the food shortages that had plagued the subcontinent in the 1960s. For helping lay the groundwork of the Green Revolution, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. Afterward he worked on improving crop yields in Africa and taught at Texas A&M University.

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(1066) Military conquest of England by William, duke of Normandy (later William I), mainly through his victory over Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. Edward the Confessor had designated William as his successor in 1051. When Harold, duke of Wessex, was crowned king of England in 1066 instead, William assembled an invasion force of 5,000 knights. After defeating Harold's army near Hastings on October 14 and advancing to London, he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day, 1066. Native revolts continued until 1071, notably in Northumbria. The Norman Conquest brought great social and political changes to England, linking the country more closely with western Europe and replacing the old English aristocracy with a Norman aristocracy. The English language was subjected to a long period of influence by Anglo-French, which remained in literary and courtly use until the reign of Edward III and in legal reporting until the 17th century.

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Any of the Vikings, or Norsemen, who settled in northern France (or the Frankish kingdom) and their descendants. As pagan pirates from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, they raided the European coast in the 8th century. They settled in the lower Seine valley by circa 900. In 911 they were granted territory around what is now Rouen by King Charles III and then extended their territory westward. They founded the duchy of Normandy, governed by a line of rulers who called themselves counts or dukes of Normandy. Though the Normans converted to Christianity and adopted the French language, they continued to display their Viking ancestors' recklessness and appetite for conquest. In the 11th century they seized England in the Norman Conquest and colonized southern Italy and Sicily. The Normans also participated in the reconquest of Spain and in the Crusades, and the Normans of Italy and Sicily were rivals of the Byzantine emperors.

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(born Dec. 10, 1924, St. Andrew, Jam.—died March 6, 1997, Kingston) Jamaican political leader. Son of a prime minister of Jamaica and a sculptor, Manley was a leader of the People's National Party and the National Worker's Union before becoming prime minister in 1972. His leftist government made significant improvements in housing, education, and health care, but a dramatic rise in oil prices precipitated an economic crisis. Much of the middle class fled the country, unemployment rose to 30percnt, and violence broke out in the run-up to the 1980 election, in which he was defeated. He was reelected in 1989, this time as a moderate; he stepped down in 1992 for health reasons.

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(born Dec. 10, 1924, St. Andrew, Jam.—died March 6, 1997, Kingston) Jamaican political leader. Son of a prime minister of Jamaica and a sculptor, Manley was a leader of the People's National Party and the National Worker's Union before becoming prime minister in 1972. His leftist government made significant improvements in housing, education, and health care, but a dramatic rise in oil prices precipitated an economic crisis. Much of the middle class fled the country, unemployment rose to 30percnt, and violence broke out in the run-up to the 1980 election, in which he was defeated. He was reelected in 1989, this time as a moderate; he stepped down in 1992 for health reasons.

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Mailer, 1968

(born Jan. 31, 1923, Long Branch, N.J., U.S.—died Nov. 10, 2007, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist. He studied at Harvard University. He drew on his wartime service in the Pacific for his novel The Naked and the Dead (1948), which established him as one of the major American writers of the post-World War II decades. A flamboyant and controversial figure who enjoyed antagonizing critics and readers, he became best known for journalistic works that convey actual events with the richness of novels, an approach known as New Journalism; these works include The Armies of the Night (1968, Pulitzer Prize), Miami and the Siege of Chicago (1968), Of a Fire on the Moon (1970), and The Executioner's Song (1979, Pulitzer Prize). His novels include An American Dream (1965); Harlot's Ghost (1991), about the Central Intelligence Agency; and The Castle in the Forest (2007), about Adolf Hitler.

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(born Sept. 15, 1945, Augusta, Ga., U.S.) U.S. soprano. She won the Munich International Music Competition in 1968 and debuted in Berlin as Elisabeth in Tannhäuser (1969). She appeared at La Scala, Milan, in 1972 and made recital debuts in London and New York City the next year. Having garnered extraordinary praise for years, she made her Metropolitan Opera debut in Les Troyens in 1983, confirming her reputation as perhaps the greatest soprano of her generation. An imposing stage presence with a vibrant and flexible voice, her operatic and concert repertoire encompasses an exceptionally wide range.

Learn more about Norman, Jessye with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 22, 1934, Trenton, N.J., U.S.) U.S. army commander. The son of a brigadier general, he graduated from West Point and fought in the Vietnam War (1965–66, 1969–70). After various other assignments, he was promoted to major general (1983) and commanded forces in the invasion of Grenada. In 1988 he became a four-star general and commander of the U.S. Central Command, which included operations in the Middle East. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, he directed the buildup of 700,000 U.S. and allied troops in Saudi Arabia and commanded the successful Desert Storm operations in the Persian Gulf War (1991), after which he retired from active service.

Learn more about Schwarzkopf, H. Norman with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 21, 1936, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1999, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. basketball player, one of the greatest offensive players in basketball history. The 7-ft 1-in. (2.16-m) Chamberlain played two years (1956–58) for the University of Kansas. “Wilt the Stilt” later played centre for the Philadelphia (later Golden State) Warriors (1959–65), the Philadelphia 76ers (1965–68), and the Los Angeles Lakers (1968–73). In the 1961–62 season he became the first player to score more than 4,000 points in regular-season NBA games, including a record 100 points in a single game (1962). He led the NBA in scoring seven consecutive years (1959–65) and in rebounding 11 times. He ranks first in career rebounds (23,924) and career rebounding average (22.9 per game).

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(born March 25, 1914, Cresco, Iowa, U.S.) U.S. agricultural scientist and plant pathologist. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota. As a researcher with the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico (1944–60), he developed strains of grain that tripled Mexican wheat production. Later his dwarf wheats raised harvests in Pakistan and India by 60percnt, ending the food shortages that had plagued the subcontinent in the 1960s. For helping lay the groundwork of the Green Revolution, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. Afterward he worked on improving crop yields in Africa and taught at Texas A&M University.

Learn more about Borlaug, Norman (Ernest) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Norman may refer to:

  • Normans, a people who colonized Normandy in France and conquered other lands, particularly England
  • Norman architecture, styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans
  • Norman dynasty, a series of monarchs who ruled England and/or Normandy
  • Norman language, a Romance language spoken in Normandy

People

  • Norman (name), name origin and list of people with the given name and surname Norman

Places

Companies

  • Norman Cycles, a British bicycle, autocycle, moped, and motorcycle manufacturer
  • Norman ASA, producers of antivirus and other security software
  • Norman Boats, a UK builder of cabin cruisers
  • Harvey Norman, a large retailer of electrical, computer, furniture and bedding goods

See also

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