In a business filled with constant change, its leadership has been remarkably stable: two people—the late Tracey Sterne and, since 1984, Bob Hurwitz—have been at the helm for 38 of those 44 years.
Though the face of Nonesuch has changed dramatically in the years since Tracey Sterne was leading the company, the label has retained many of its most important aspects during its history. Above all, the label has striven to be at the forefront of contemporary classical music during both the Sterne (George Crumb, Elliott Carter, William Bolcom) and Hurwitz (John Adams, Steve Reich, Kronos Quartet, Philip Glass, Louis Andriessen, Frederic Rzewski, Henryk Górecki) eras.
During Sterne's tenure, Nonesuch began the Explorer Series of more than 100 releases of world music recordings; Nonesuch has since been active working with many artists from around the world, including legendary Brazilian singer/songwriter Caetano Veloso, the late Argentine composer Astor Piazzolla, Senegalese icon Youssou N'Dour, and, through its long-time association with World Circuit Records, the recordings of the Buena Vista Social Club and Ibrahim Ferrer from Cuba, Senegal's Orchestra Baobab, and Mali's Toumani Diabaté and Ali Farka Touré.
In its early days, Nonesuch released recordings of Scott Joplin's music and commissioned new recordings of songs by composers like Charles Ives and Stephen Foster. During the past 25 years, the label made important historical contributions with its George and Ira Gershwin Library of Congress series, classic piano roll recordings of George Gershwin and Jelly Roll Morton, and the theater songs of Kurt Weill, Rodgers and Hart, Leonard Bernstein, and Vernon Duke.
Classical music has always been a major foundation of the label. During its early years significant recordings were made by Jan DeGaetani, Paul Jacobs, and Gilbert Kalish, among others; in later years, Nonesuch released albums by Richard Goode, Dawn Upshaw, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, and Gidon Kremer.
In the past quarter century, Nonesuch also expanded into new areas of repertoire. It started recording jazz in 1984, with the World Saxophone Quartet Plays Duke Ellington, and through the years worked with Bill Frisell, Fred Hersch, Brad Mehldau, Pat Metheny, Joshua Redman, and John Zorn. The company has taken an active role in American music theater, including seven recordings of shows and soundtracks by Stephen Sondheim and all three major works by Adam Guettel.
The company has worked closely with the New York City Ballet and The George Balanchine Trust, releasing videos of many of Balanchine's ballets, as well as important works by Mark Morris, Paul Taylor, and Twyla Tharp. The company has been selectively involved with the soundtracks of a number of television programs (The Civil War, Angels in America, The Wire) and films (Powaqqatsi, Wings of Desire, Requiem for a Dream, Kundun, The Hours, The Thin Blue Line, There Will Be Blood, Sweeney Todd). The company also made recordings of film scores by Georges Delerue, Alex North, Toru Takemitsu, and Leonard Rosenman.
Finally, over the last decade, Nonesuch has entered into the adult and alternative pop worlds. Many of the world's leading singers and songwriters—including Emmylou Harris, Randy Newman, David Byrne, k.d. lang, Joni Mitchell, Brian Wilson, Shawn Colvin, Sam Phillips, and T Bone Burnett—have made important albums for Nonesuch during this period. And the label has begun recording a new generation of musicians, including Wilco, The Black Keys, The Magnetic Fields, Punch Brothers, Chris Thile, Laura Veirs, and Christina Courtin.
As a testament to Nonesuch's success in fulfilling its broad mission, in 2004, Nonesuch won Grammys in four different musical genres, including best classical album (and best contemporary classical composition-both John Adams), best alternative album (Wilco), best world music album (Youssou N'Dour), and best jazz ensemble album (Bill Frisell).
Over the years, reports have suggested that the first year's worth of Nonesuch releases generated sufficient income to help support the pop side of Elektra and enable Holzman to sign such acts as the Doors and Love. At the very least, the fledgling Nonesuch was successful enough to prompt major label competitors to embark on their own similarly high concept / low budget classical lines for young consumers.
To bolster his operation, Holzman brought over Teresa "Tracey" Sterne from Vanguard, where she'd worked alongside label head Seymour Solomon. The Brooklyn-born Sterne had been a child prodigy. (In 2000, on the album A Portrait, Nonesuch paired a recording of performances she made as a teenager with a selection of recordings she supervised during her time at the label.) She pursued an adult career as a concert pianist before deciding to shift her focus to the business side of the classical music industry, first as a publicity assistant with Sol Hurok's concert-producing organization and then with Columbia Records, before moving over to Vanguard.
Sterne was officially called the label's coordinator, but she preferred the title of editor. She carefully selected material from the European classical sources Holzman had cultivated and began to build her own roster of artists, culling talent from the contemporary classical and new-music circles of New York City. Projects she developed at Nonesuch routinely garnered critical acclaim and, on occasion, found serious commercial success.
Composer George Crumb's Ancient Voices of Children, inspired by the poems of Federico Garcia Lorca, sold more than 70,000 units, a remarkable feat for a challenging modern piece from an avant-garde source. It was performed by the Contemporary Classical Ensemble (CCE) and featured mezzo-soprano Jan DeGaetani, a close colleague of Sterne's. (DeGaetani was also an influential teacher; Nonesuch artist Dawn Upshaw was one of her students.) CCE co-founder Charles Wourinen was commissioned by Sterne to create a piece for synthesized instrumentation; his resulting Time's Encomium won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1970. And a young musicologist who worked with Sterne, Joshua Rifkin, introduced Scott Joplin's music to a wider audience, resulting in the company's first million-selling record and igniting a passion for ragtime jazz in a mainstream audience.
Perhaps most significantly, Sterne established the Nonesuch Explorer Series, which presented indigenous music from around the world, beginning with field recordings brought to Sterne by musicologist David Lewiston and produced for disc by Peter Siegel.
This was "world music" at its purest-much of it, like the Balinese sounds on Music from the Morning of the World and Golden Rain, hitherto unheard in the West. (The former was inducted into the National Recording Registry of "culturally significant" sound recordings in 2008.) The Explorer Series was not simply an anthropological mission: Sterne considered the work to be on the same aesthetic level as that of any Western Nonesuch artist. The series found enthusiastic followers, including a counter-cultural listenership that employed pieces like the 22-minute long "Monkey Chant" from Golden Rain as soundtrack for their chemically altered armchair travels.
Milo Miles, the world- and American-roots music critic for NPR's Fresh Air, recently testified on the program to the series' impact:
And the San Francisco Chronicle said:
Holzman sold Elektra to Warner Communications in 1970. When Nonesuch turned 15 in 1979, critic Peter G. Davis wrote, in a New York Times article entitled "The Special Touch of Nonesuch, that the label "has always been run with the kind of personal touch that creates a flavor of autonomy and generates quality. Warner's enlightened 'hands off' policy has no doubt helped encourage this salutary effect, for it means that Teresa Sterne, who has guided Nonesuch's fortunes for most of its 15 years can more or less do things her way."
Sterne's strong guiding hand had cemented the reputation of Nonesuch with savvy listeners and critics, but her fastidious approach held less sway with the corporate heads. In December of 1979, merely months after Davis had lavished such praise on her stewardship, Sterne made headlines in the Times again: she had been abruptly dismissed from her job at the behest of Elektra chairman Joe Smith. Sterne expressed "complete surprise and shock" to a reporter, though she did speculate that weaker sales might have prompted the move. Her firing prompted an outcry from the label's artists and New York City's creative community at large. More than 2,000 people wrote to the head of Warner Communications in protest, and all of the artists on the label sent a signed petition to the New York Times objecting to her ouster.
The label operated from Los Angeles for the next four years under the direction of Keith Holzman, Jac's younger brother. Many of the artists Sterne had signed, though disgruntled, chose to remain on the label without their mentor.
Warner Bros. Records executive and former Blue Thumb Records chief Bob Krasnow , who had taken over the chairmanship of Elektra Records in 1983, decided to bring in the 34-year-old Robert Hurwitz, the young head of American operations for ECM, the jazz and new-music label that was, at the time, being distributed by Warner Bros., a deal Krasnow had brokered.
Hurwitz, a Los Angeles native raised, as he told the New York Times, in "a fairly evolved household as far as music was concerned, was himself a pianist who came to New York City at the age of 21, determined to either pursue a career as a musician or break into the record business. His first job was at Columbia Records, where he was hired as a publicity writer. At Columbia, Hurwitz met four people who would have a big impact on his career: Karin Berg, Manfred Eicher, John Hammond, and Godard Lieberson.
Berg persuaded Columbia to hire him and was an important mentor. He met Manfred Eicher, the head of ECM Records when Eicher came looking for a distribution deal at Columbia; Eicher told Hurwitz that he wanted him to run ECM's American company, as soon as he could find someone to release the records. Hurwitz got to know the great A&R man John Hammond well and spent time with Lieberson, the legendary head of Columbia; he was deeply influenced by the values and high standards they represented. Hurwitz continually looked to many of Lieberson's artistic (and business) values as he sought a new direction for Nonesuch.
True to his word, in 1975 Eicher hired Hurwitz, then 25, to run ECM in America. They worked together for nine years, and during that time Hurwitz began relationships with four musicians who would ultimately join him at Nonesuch: Pat Metheny, Bill Frisell, Steve Reich, and John Adams. During Hurwitz's first years at ECM, the company coincided with Keith Jarrett's Köln Concert, Chick Corea's Return to Forever, and the launch of Metheny's career, and in the late 1970s, American companies grew interested in distributing the label. In 1978, the company was signed to Warner Bros. by Krasnow.
Krasnow took over Elektra in 1982 and brought Hurwitz over in the fall of 1984. (He had made the offer 20 years to the day after the label's founding.) As Hurwitz now recalls, "The first two years were incredibly fertile. We were able to sign Steve Reich and John Adams, and start working with Philip Glass, Kronos Quartet, and John Zorn. It was a time when most of the classical divisions of major labels were asleep. They were so busy devising genre 'crossover' projects and re-issuing catalogue on CD, still a new technology at that time, that few people were doing anything from an A&R point of view." In 1985, Nonesuch released Reich's Desert Music and Adams's Harmonielehre. A year later came Kronos Quartet's self-titled debut, Zorn's Spillane, World Saxophone Quartet's Plays Duke Ellington, and Sérgio and Odair Assad's debut recording. Of the label's past roster, classical pianist Richard Goode and soprano Teresa Stratas remained.
Hurwitz's initial signing of new-music mavericks mirrored the adventurous spirit that Sterne had established. But their sound and sensibility were radically, almost defiantly different. The recordings of Adams, Glass, and Reich, as well as the new-music aesthetic of Kronos, seemed to contrast sharply with the more cerebral, European-influenced new music favored in the early days of Nonesuch. Hurwitz, who had admiration for much of the older Nonesuch's new-music perspective, was well aware of the conflict between generations, and although a few new recordings were released reflecting those older values—by composers like Carter, Leon Kirchner, and George Perle—he felt the future course was in the hands of musicians closer to his own generation, the music he loved the most.
More immediately, for the revitalized Nonesuch, these artists found a record-buying audience. "I think it's a wonderful irony," muses Hurwitz, "because the recording of new music is possibly the least commercially viable aspect of anything one can do in the record business. But all of our initial successes came out of that area." The first three Kronos albums sold close to 100,000 copies, an unheard of result from a string quartet playing modern music; their fifth, Pieces of Africa, sold close to 400,000, topping Billboard's world music chart. Early Glass soundtracks of Mishima and Powaqqatsi sold more than 100,000, as did Different Trains and Desert Music by Steve Reich.
Finally, the recording of Polish composer Henryk Górecki's Third Symphony sold more than one million copies. Górecki's solemn symphony, a minimalist hymn to the suffering of his native people in World War II, was performed by the London Sinfonetta and Dawn Upshaw. The reclusive Górecki had composed the piece in 1976, but it didn't appear on disc until 1992. Repeated exposure on Classic FM radio in London helped to propel the recording into an unprecedented #3 spot on the British pop charts. Górecki himself speculated, "Perhaps people find something they need in this piece of music … Somehow I hit the right note, something they were missing."
"These kinds of records not only gave us credibility," says Hurwitz, "they sent a signal out to the musical community about what we were doing. We got caught up in a wave at absolutely the right moment."
Whereas the signings of Adams and Reich (who were both given exclusive composer contracts, which continue through this day) could be seen in the context of a time-honored tradition of the record business (Lieberson at Columbia had signed Copland and Stravinsky; Decca had signed Britten; Deutsche Grammophon had signed Stockhausen and Henze), the introduction of Kronos, Zorn, and soon afterwards, the Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso, all symbolized the greatest break from Nonesuch's past, and opened up opportunities that would come in the future.
Hurwitz believes "those things at the time were obvious and easy to do. But for me, the most dramatic turning point was when the opportunity came to work with Caetano Veloso. That was a moment when we could do something really different."
Signing the Brazilian singer-songwriter, a founding member of the voraciously eclectic, politically subversive late-'60s Tropicalismo movement, asserts Hurwitz, "turned everything on its head." He recalls:
With Veloso, Hurwitz had ventured into intriguingly uncharted territory for the label. This wasn't world music, just worldly, and that sensibility informed subsequent international deals at the label. In 1987, Nonesuch released Le Mystère des Voix Bulgares, a collection of a cappella performances by a Bulgarian State Television female choir that was as entrancingly strange as it was beautiful, full of otherworldly harmonies. The album was a press sensation and a left-field commercial hit, despite its Bulgarian lyrics. A year later, Argetine nuevo tango composer Astor Piazzolla made his first recording for the label.
The Bulgarian record began a new period of commercial prosperity for the company; where new music had fueled the label in the few years of the post-Sterne era, now, suddenly, the label caught a wave with world music. Soon after the Bulgarian success, Hurwitz brought the Gipsy Kings to Nonesuch; the group's self-titled debut sold more than a million copies-in fact, eleven of the 50 top-selling Nonesuch releases are by the Gipsy Kings. The 1997 landmark Buena Vista Social Club, at close to three million units, became the best-selling album in the company's history, and Nonesuch has sold hundreds of thousands of albums by musicians attached to that project, including Ibrahim Ferrer, Rubén González, and the Afro-Cuban All-Stars. Piazzolla made two of his last albums for Nonesuch, both of which sold in the hundreds of thousands, as did Tango Zero Hour, now licensed to Nonesuch, and the first two albums of Piazzolla's music by Gidon Kremer.
Nonesuch was caught up in all of the changes that began to affect the record business in the early 1990s. The 1980s had been a boom time in the business; the coming of the CD was a transformative time in which record companies' profits reached record highs. But it was also a time of corporate upheaval, and in 1994, Bob Krasnow, who was so important in supporting Hurwitz in his early years at Nonesuch, was fired. Warner Music Group decided that Nonesuch should be moved from its longtime home, Elektra Records, to Warner Music International, where it would be teamed up with recently acquired Teldec and Erato labels. The German Teldec and the French Erato were well-respected European classical labels; the corporation now wanted to be in the classical business, and even though at this moment Nonesuch was moving further away from that older role, it was now attached to the other two. More positively, though, it gave Nonesuch, for the first time, much more of a foot in the European market.
It was also an important moment for the company, as Hurwitz was able to hire the highly respected David Bither—who had been the general manager of Elektra Records—to take on a position with Nonesuch as senior vice president. This was especially significant for it marked the first time in the ten years Hurwitz had been at Nonesuch that there would be a second A&R voice in the company.
Hurwitz met Bither a few years before he had been offered the Nonesuch job. Bither, who had experience as a musician, music journalist, and arts administrator, was working for Steve Ross, the head of Warner Communications. Nonesuch, beginning in Tracey Sterne's day, had always had a staff of less than five; Hurwitz knew in the beginning that he would be able to only hire one other executive. Knowing the importance of the choice, he met with at least 40 qualified people in the music business, and it came down to a choice of two: Bither and Peter Clancy, who was then head of publicity and promotion at Philips Records. Hurwitz ultimately chose Clancy, because of his classical music knowledge and music business experience. Clancy, now the senior vice president for marketing, started the same day as Hurwitz, September 4, 1984.
Bither, who had previously never worked in the record business, was very supportive of the decision and he was able to carve enough time out of his job at Warner to happily accept Hurwitz's offer to become a dollar-a-year consultant. He was heavily involved for Hurwitz's first three years, before Krasnow brought Bither directly to Elektra, where in rapid succession he served as Elektra's vice president of international (his first job in the record business, where he helped launch the careers of Tracy Chapman and 10,000 Maniacs), head of domestic marketing, and, ultimately, senior vice president and general manager. During his years at Elektra he also brought his first artists to Nonesuch: Texas singer-songwriter Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Seattle-based composer and songwriter Robin Holcomb, and New York composer Robert Ashley.
With the changes at Elektra, Hurwitz saw an opportunity to bring his old friend and colleague aboard full-time. The first project Bither brought to Nonesuch was the Cape Verdean singer Cesaria Evora, whose US debut sold 200,000 copies and continued Nonesuch's prosperous run in world music. Soon after, he landed a deal with World Circuit Records, the esteemed London-based world music company. Within a few years, Bither brought Emmylou Harris to the label, and other important signings would include the bands Wilco and The Black Keys, Youssou N'Dour, Laurie Anderson, Ry Cooder, Sam Phillips, Laura Veirs, T Bone Burnett, and Christina Courtin. He was also responsible for bringing to Nonesuch Brian Wilson's long-awaited SMiLE, a project he had followed closely and pursued since his arrival at the label.
"David's coming to Nonesuch was an important moment in our company's history," says Hurwitz. "Though we share many things in common in terms of our musical taste, David also brought in a different and highly evolved perspective that was invaluable in terms of our growth and development as a label. We became a much stronger company after he joined Nonesuch's staff."
The company's greatest selling album, Buena Vista Social Club, was the unexpected result of a deal with World Circuit Records. Bither had pursued the label on the strength of an album World Circuit head Nick Gold had made with the young Malian singer Oumou Sangare. As Hurwitz recalls, "With the Oumou Sangare record, Nick had found a completely new way to record African musicians in this very clear style that basically allowed them to be who they were; they seemed, in their own way, as revolutionary as what Manfred had done at ECM in the early years from a production point of view."
"We invited Nick to come to New York," adds Bither, "and we spent a day together. It was clear we shared similar ideas about what we were doing as labels, and during the conversation, Nick mentioned that he had recently come back from Cuba, where he had made three records with Ry Cooder and a group of older Cuban musicians. 'I'll send them to you soon,' he said. That was one of those moments of utter good fortune. We actually made the World Circuit deal knowing nothing about the Buena Vista Social Club record."
In July of 1998, almost a year after the release of the initial trio of Buena Vista records—Buena Vista Social Club, Afro-Cuban All-Stars, and Introducing Rubén González—the one-night-only gathering at Carnegie Hall was captured on film by German director Wim Wenders and it served as the climax to his documentary about the Buena Vista sessions. Unlike most major label albums, which have their greatest sales peaks in the initial weeks or months of release, the Buena Vista album sold very well in its first year, even better in its second, and kept selling for its third year and ever since—and it spawned a series of spin-off projects from various members, young and old, of the original Havana sessions.
Many of the early relationships Nonesuch established with artists in the 1980s are still going strong; Nonesuch is still recording John Adams, Steve Reich, Kronos Quartet, the Assad brothers, Caetano Veloso, Bill Frisell, and Dawn Upshaw, all of whom made their first recordings with the label in the mid-1980s. [[John Adams (composer)|John Adams]'s recent recordings include My Father Knew Charles Ives / The Dharma at Big Sur and his latest opera, A Flowering Tree, with a recording of the Doctor Atomic Symphony and Guide to Strange Places with conductor David Robertson due out in 2009. The label has recorded over 40 new compositions of Adams to date. A box set of Steve Reich's work was released in 2007, in honor of his 70th birthday, and was followed by two new pieces, Daniel Variations and Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings. Kronos Quartet currently has 38 Nonesuch albums to their name, the latest of which is a Terry Riley composition called The Cusp of Magic; the Quartet recorded the third string quartet of another longtime Nonesuch friend, Henryk Górecki, in 2007.
In 2002, Nonesuch released a seven-disc collection of the piano works of Frederic Rzewski, including the classic works The People United Will Never Be Defeated! and De Profundis, all performed by the composer. And among the latest relationships with new-music artists: in early 2008, Nonesuch made its first recording by the Argentine composer Fernando Otero; in 2009 it will release its first recording by Alarm Will Sound.
Nonesuch has continued recording traditional classical artists: 2009 will bring the release of the complete Beethoven piano concertos with Richard Goode, conducted by Iván Fischer, and the complete Mozart violin concertos with Gidon Kremer and the Kremerata Baltica. During the last few years, Nonesuch released two albums by the late mezzo-soprano Lorraine Hunt Lieberson: a disc of Bach Cantatas and her husband, Peter Lieberson's, Neruda Songs. Nonesuch released a recording of Gomidas Vartabed songs by Isabel Bayrakarian in September 2008.
The longtime relationship with World Circuit has brought albums from a renowned roster of international artists, like Toumani Diabaté's The Mandé Variations and his Grammy Award–winning duet with the late Ali Farka Touré, In the Heart of the Moon; the final recording by Buena Vista Social Club's Ibrahim Ferrer; Cheikh Lô's Lamp Fall; and Orchestra Baobab's Made in Dakar. In fall 2008 Nonesuch released Buena Vista Club Live at Carnegie Hall, the second and only other album this extraordinary group of musicians made.
Additionally, Nonesuch continues to work with Caetano Veloso, whose 2007 rock album Cê made many critics' best-of-the-year lists, and with Youssou N'Dour, who continues to make acclaimed records like 2008's Rokku Mi Rokka in addition to his growing philanthropic work. The Malian singer Rokia Traoré will also release a new album on Nonesuch in 2009.
In the music-theater world, Nonesuch has recently released cast recordings from the award-winning Broadway revivals of Sondheim's Sweeney Todd and Company, the original cast recordings of Adam Guettel's The Light in the Piazza and Floyd Collins. Two great Broadway performers, four-time Tony Award–winning Audra McDonald and Tony and Emmy winner Mandy Patinkin, have also made recordings for the company.
Coinciding with Nonesuch's move to its current home, Warner Bros., came the closing of Warner's jazz division. At that time, four musicians, Pat Metheny, Brad Mehldau, Joshua Redman, and Nicholas Payton, all moved to Nonesuch. Metheny's Nonesuch recordings have included an album by his Pat Metheny Group, a trio record with Christian McBride and Anthony Sanchez, and a pair of discs with Mehldau and his trio. Mehldau has been equally prolific, with a live solo album, a live trio album, two studio trio albums, and a composition written for and performed by the soprano Renée Fleming, as has Redman, who made two records as the bandleader of the [[SFJAZZ Collective, an acoustic trio album, and a disc with his electric ensemble, Elastic Band. Payton's label debut, Into the Blue, was released in 2008. The great New Orleans musician Allen Toussaint will make his label debut in 2009 with an album that includes Payton, Mehldau, and Redman.
The rock band Wilco has now released three studio albums on Nonesuch—Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, A ghost is born, and Sky Blue Sky—in addition to a live double-disc album and a DVD from its singer/songwriter/guitarist Jeff Tweedy. The Magnetic Fields have two Nonesuch releases, i and Distortion, plus a handful of projects from the band's wide-ranging singer/songwriter/composer Stephin Merritt. Other young musicians with indie sensibilities include singer/songwriter/guitarist Laura Veirs, who released Saltbreakers in 2007; the rock band The Black Keys, with its recent Danger Mouse–produced album Attack & Release; and the newly signed singer/songwriter Christina Courtin. A band that straddles many of the genres Nonesuch presents is mandolinist Chris Thile's new group, Punch Brothers, which released its label debut, Punch, in 2008.
Among the iconic pop musicians with whom Nonesuch has worked in recent years are Emmylou Harris, with her Grammy-winning label debut, Red Dirt Girl, Stumble into Grace, and All I Intended to Be, plus All the Roadrunning, with Mark Knopfler (a collaboration with Warner Bros.); Randy Newman, who followed up his label debut, Randy Newman Songbook, Vol. I, with a 2008 album of original songs, Harps and Angels; Ry Cooder with his California trilogy—Chavez Ravine, My Name Is Buddy, and I, Flathead, a combined novella/record project—among others; k.d. lang with Hymns of the 49th Parallel and Watershed; David Byrne with Grown Backwards; T Bone Burnett with Tooth of Crime; and Joni Mitchell with Travelogue plus a multi-artist album of her songs, A Tribute to Joni Mitchell. Sam Phillips has released three albums on Nonesuch: Fan Dance, A Boot and a Shoe, and Don't Do Anything, and Shawn Colvin made her label debut with These Four Walls.
As Boston Globe critic-at-large Ed Siegel wrote of the Nonesuch artist roster a decade ago, in words that still resonate today: