Nippenburg

Nippenburg

Nippenburg is a ruined castle located in Schwieberdingen, Germany. The oldest records of Nippenburg date to 1160, which makes it one of the oldest castles in the region of Stuttgart. In the seventeenth century the castle was positioned favorably lying on a mountain spur over-half the Glemstals and built in direct proximity to the manor-house lock Nippenburg. In the following centuries the castle was heavily quarried and abandoned. The ruins are with high walls and fortifications as well as a substantial scrub. In the 1980s the building was partially restored to its 1483 condition.

History

Reconstruction of the opinion of the Nippenburg in 15. and 16. Century [1]The Nippenburg probably became military purposes in the 11. Century [2] by a local aristocracy sex builds. It is considered as the oldest castle ruin in the area Stuttgart. Was mentioned for the first time documentary the castle in the Codex Hirsaugiensis, which testifies for 1160 one of a Berwart "below the Nippenburg" delighted mill. [3]

The original castle plant was extended in the course of the time several marks. Thus that originates the Ringmauer pre-aged kennels from the first half 14. Century. The fore-castle with the today still received substantial scrub became toward end 15th century establishes.

By the discovery of the black powder in 15th century was introduced the end of the castles in Europe. Due to the again developed Explosionsgeschosse and the replacement exerted by it catapults by mortars and cannons the castle plants could not offer sufficient protection to the inhabitants more. Since one on the castles besides only coldly, wet and uncomfortably lived, these more and more were left. Around 1600 therefore with the building of the manor-house lock Nippenburg was begun above the castle plant, which in 18th and 19th century was extended and changed.

When to Nippenburg, which established manor-house, it left William, the last knight stones from the castle out-broken and used it as building material for its new domicile. After the castle plant was inhabited to approximately 1700, it was abandoned in the following centuries the purge. At which time the castle was completely given up as living and protection place, cannot are exactly specified. Thus a furnace plate found with restoration work points from the year 1770 on the fact that the castle was partly inhabited also still at a later time. From a correspondence of the Vögte from Markgröningen and Leonberg, which argued in the years 1647 and 1648 about well received boards and bars of the Nippenburg, it follows however that parts of the buildings were given up at this time already within the castle and one availed oneself at remaining the remainders remained of the castle, until it was finally only a ruin. In the course of the time ivy covered and bushes the wall remainders. The supply and stockrooms of the castle were only used still long time by the inhabitants of the manor-house.

In the 1960s and 1970ss a plan matured to reorganize the walls come into desolate condition. In order to receive the castle ruin, from 1979 to 1984 extensive restoration measures at the collapse-endangered walls were accomplished. The costs for this carried the office for national monument Baden-Wuerttemberg, the municipality Schwieberdingen, the today's owner count Leutrum as well as the district Ludwigsburg. Today the castle ruin Nippenburg is a popular trip goal. [4]

castle ruin Nippenburg

Sketch of the ruin Nippenburg The castle ruin is southwest from Schwieberdingen on a hill because of the edge of the today's lock property Nippenburg. On elevator castle lying from the Glems flowed around mountain spur was protected at three sides by sumps and the steeply dropping slope. This was directly bald around the castle once, because no tree or bush should offer protection and covering to the aggressors. Danger threatened the castle nearly only from the eastern side, where the mountain spur continues into the open area. To the protection against it the castle gentlemen established partially this very day the visible powerful Schildmauer. The sixteen meters of high and three meters thicken wall were additionally the castle plant running neck ditch pre-aged for the defense southeast from enemies. Across this broad and once approximately six to eight meters a stone round elbow bridge, which ended three meters before the Burgtor, led deep castle ditch. Between bridge and Burgtor the Zugbrücke present - supposed in 15. Century by a further stone bridge elbow replaces - could be pulled up with danger. Due to this military system the Nippenburg granted over many centuries security and refuge to its inhabitants. Like that it is not delivered that the Nippenburg was ever taken, destroyed or down-burned.

The plant has two fore-castles. The first, southern fore-castle with large castle barn and the far former yard range, exhibits the remainders of two Burgtoren in the west and the east. The remainders of the eastern gate tower on the left and on the right the way point out today still that to this side a well fastened weir system with a considered walk along the battlements, which up to castle-scrub went was. Here was also the castle guard.

Former donjon and castle cellarBeside the large free meadow a mostly in the original form received farm buildings in the southern fore-castle, which for 1483 delighted gothical castle-scrub, is. Under it is an unusually large Gewölbekeller, which was vitally necessary with longer FE storage times particularly for the supply attitude. Under the barn roof are three grain soils built one above the other. The southern forecourt of the castle was probably filled up with the excavation resulted with the plant of the neck ditch. Thus developed a high retaining wall, which is kennel-like enclosed in the south by two pre-aged walls.

The western Burgtor leads to the Glemstal down there. Also here the former Kettenscharten of the Zugbrücke shows itself. The way by the second Burgtor toward valley following, is on the right a wall course, which belongs to a former restaurant yard. At the interior walls of the restaurant yard were accommodated under a monopitch roof the stables and the Schmiede on the side and the Gesindehaus with Wagnerei and upholstery dept. on the other side. One continues to encounter a piece the recognizable remainders of an earlier barrier and ditch system, which toward the west as a first defense area served the castle. At a steeply dropping foot or bridle path one arrives here at those approximately 50 meters (160 feet) lower lying Glems.

Ruin NippenburgIn the western fore-castle, which lies opposite the large castle barn, one finds only the remainders of a cistern and a once high donjon with under it lying five meters deep reading out cellar, which one cannot see however.

By the opening of the today no longer existing internal Burgtors one arrives from here into the Burghof of the main castle. Here the back of the powerful Schildmauer rises in the eastern part, which to both sides a Ringmauer follows, which surrounded the whole Burghof in earlier times. The wall is today mostly still hüfthoch received, well secured and only northward interrupted. It is assumed that at the steep slope by erosion went off masonry hurry there. At the inside of the old Ringmauer an information board with sketch and history of the Nippenburg is attached.

A gate in the Ringmauer rising highly in the southern part opens the way to the southeast kennel. This represented a further important defense area by the multiplicity of Schiessscharten. In the southeast corner of the kennel that was located 1945 deliberately destroyed and in the vernacular Käppele Wachtürmchen mentioned. The today still completely received lookout witnesses of the fact that from here on the gate guards the Zugbrücke served.

In the Burghof was between donjon and the still received castle cellar the roomy kitchen. The Deckengewölbe of the castle cellar formed once the foundation for the only in fragments existing Palas, which, apart from some windows and restored walls, exhibits only few details. In the protection of the Schildmauer the Kemenate mentioned stood woman in accordance with oh, which a small chapel followed.

manor-house Nippenburg

There the castle starting from outgoing 16. Century more and more their original function lost, developed in its direct proximity a representative lock, which builds 1600 of Heinrich Schickhardt, again in the year 1728 and in the 19th century was converted. To the today's dreigeschossigen building of fineries in classical arrangement, to which as typical rural aristocracy seat can be considered, a restaurant yard with different buildings and a park belong. Since 1951 become the lock again by the gräflichen family Leutrum of Ertingen, which inhabits direct descendant of the knights of Nippenburg.

Lock park Nippenburg In the rear range of the manor-house fenced that is appropriate for about two hectares large lock park from old walls. More than 200 years old park was transformed several times in the course of the centuries. Thus the oldest map shows fruit tree rows of 1767 dead-straight in the range of the today's park plant. Only at the end 18. and in 19. Century took place the transformation to its current form in the style of an English landscape garden. An English garden should be contrary to the French baroque garden nature as shared as possible, with which no straight axles or strict geometrical forms exist. Along the ways occupied with fine pebbles finds one in the lock park in the midst of the short-cropped lawn more than 30 different kinds, among them rare oaks and beeches, giant trees, trumpet, tulip and Ginkgo trees, as well as some like Einsprengsel working rose patches and to flower discounts. A botanische characteristic is an Urweltmammutbaum (Metasequoia). This leaves-throwing off kind of coniferous tree was discovered only 1941 in China and was well-known before only from fossil finds.

The lock park is accessible like the manor-house in private property of the family to Ertingen and not for the public. For the day of the open monument on 10 September 2006, which under the slogan "lawn, roses and discounts" - historical gardens and parks stood, the homeland and culture area offered Schwieberdingen guidance by the garden otherwise blocked.

Inhabitants of the Nippenburg

Coat of arms of the knights of NippenburgThe Nippenburg was built as master seat here of the resident of aristocracy sex of the same name. From where the name of the sex comes, is not clarified. It is however assumed that the name is to due to an alemannischen master prince named Nippo.

The sex of the Mr. von Nippenburg is mentioned for the first time documentary 1273, when a Fridericus de Nippenburc appeared as a witness in a document of the Pfalzgrafen Ulrich of Tübingen. [5] But one already meets its name in a source from the year 1662 for a substantially earlier period, since of a knight Wilhelmus de Nippenburg is there the speech, which in the year 948 is to have attended the rider plays in Konstanz at the Bodensee. [6]

The Nippenburger was first as Dienstmannen the former count von Asperg, a branch of the Pfalzgrafen of Tübingen, starting from 1308 then the württembergischen land and leaning gentlemen connected. [7] Individual members of the family trunk branched out far appeared to history in the run however also as Vasallen of Baden as well as hohenlohesche. In 14. The Mr. von Nippenburg had century already at very many places of rights and possession, that itself in the course 15. Century extended. Their Ländereien lay in the spacious area, which from the Korngäu and beautiful book in the south was enough in the Zabergäu in the north, as well as from the Pforzheimer area in the west in the rem valley in the east. Occasionally them also the castle had Kleiningersheim, which belongs to castle stable Ditzingen and the celebrations bromine mountain in the Kirbachtal. 1488 joined the knights of Nippenburg due to an imperial request the Swabian federation, which from the union of the knight company sank George sign and developed for some realm cities. [8] Since the federation was subordinate to the realm directly, they attained larger independence from their national gentleman by the entry. Apart from the development and strengthening their lay power the Mr. von Nippenburg were also anxious to attain church power. So Fritz von Nippenburg 1306 was the first in particular well-known Kirchherr of the George church in close convenient Schwieberdingen and possessed thereby say with the assignment of the church offices. As local gentlemen von Schwieberdingen appeared the Nippenburger also as owners. 1489 began the work on the ship of the George church, 1495 the building of the choir. Besides also the building of the surge tank is 1508 and lock-scrubs 1565 to the Mr. von Nippenburg to attribute.

As only his sex ascended the 1458 born Philipp of Nippenburg also into highest public offices. 1498 it was appointed into the württembergische government. 1501 he was already herzoglich württembergischer yard master. During the time arms Konrad it was one of the most important advisors at the side of duke Ulrich of Württemberg, which it thereupon in the year 1515 with the office for hereditary giving in the duchy Württemberg belehnte. The coat of arms of the Nippenburger, before an opened eagle flight on blue reason, was extended from then on by the giving cup. The year 1518 brought a further ascent for Phillip of Nippenburg. He was appointed the württembergischen land yard master and took over together with the lawyer chancellor the Regierungsgeschäfte. [9] [10] in this time was the Nippenburger on the high point of its economic and political power.

With the beginning of the 17th century is a decrease of the nippenburgischen possession, its largest territorial expansion toward end 15th century had reached to observe. To lead back this is above all on the fact that after the off and becoming extinct Nippenburger collateral lines the Ländereien were left to other knight families. From then on the possession of the Mr. von Nippenburg concentrated predominantly around Hemmingen, Schöckingen, Schwieberdingen and Unterriexingen.

After the sex of the knights of Nippenburg in Schwieberdingen had become extinct 1609 with the death last hereditary giving William of Nippenburg, castle and property arrived 1611 by the marriage of Anna Benedikta of Nippenburg and the baron Johann Heinrich of stick home at the house stick home. The male trunk of the Nippenburger outside of Schwieberdingens died with the death of Ludwig von Nippenburg in the year 1646. Name and coats of arms of the Nippenburger lived as surname in the gräflichen sex Bissingen Nippenburg away, since Johann Friedrich of until singing had married 1646 Kunigunde of Nippenburg and had taken over the nippenburgische master property. The seat at that time of the counts von Bissingen and Nippenburg, the castle Hohenschramberg is partly likewise called therefore today Nippenburg. The female trunk of the sex of Nippenburg still survived to the end of the 17th century. As "the last one of its trunk and name", how it stands on its gravestone in Böblingen, died Ursula Margaretha Truchsess of Höfingen, born of Nippenburg in the year 1696. [11]

By Friederieke Julianne of stick home, the grandchild daughter of Anna Benedikta of Nippenburg, the castle and property 1685 as dowry into the marriage with the count Ernst Ludwig Leutrum of Ertingen brought in, came the message into the family estate of the counts Leutrum, to who castle and lock property still belong also today.

legends

As around many medieval castles some legends and legends climb also around the Nippenburg.

So once all Krieger are to have sunk in the moorland in the swampy area of the valleys of the Glemstals below the Nippenburg with a battle. Long time thereafter lived on the Nippenburg a knight, who had only one daughter. The knight Christoph of Hemmingen recruited it. Once the bride turned home only late at the night. In the darkness it got off the way and turned out in the moorland. Nobody heard its assistance calls, and she sank in the moorland. When one looked for it on the next day, one only a Tüchlein of it found. In order to be forgotten his large pain and not be continual reminded of the bad misfortune, the bridegroom with the emperor drew into the war. But also in the war happening it could not forget its recent bride and his painful end. In its homeland one heard nothing more of him. After its war service it is to have occurred a monastery, in which it lived many years and to the naturopathy dedicated themselves. Old become it withdrew it the place of its former large love, and as below the Nippenburg a monk a hut built there and established themselves, recognized nobody more the former young man, because many decades had pulled few people, which could remember the misfortune from at that time in the country and on the Nippenburg and in Hemmingen gave it only. Soon it has in the area gotten around that below the Nippenburg an old monk lived, the day and night prayed itself. He collected grasses, herbs and roots and distributed her to patient, the healing for all kinds of diseases requested. They brought it meal and drink and admired it as a holy one. Also they helped to build it, a Kirchlein. Thus the years passed, and as in the morning again once assistance-looking for to its door, remained quiet it knocked: The old man lay dead in his hut. When the called for men put it on a Bahre, a golden cross came out under its Kutte. Whereupon stood on the side: "Knight Christoph of Hemmingen “and on the other one: The love hear never on". The place below the Nippenburg is called today still the Moorkirchle. [12]

Also the Nippenburg is brought with a great deal spirit stories in connection. Thus it is told that a count had buried it there named Hans's his fortune and after his death further guards. In earlier times besides reported that at the Schwieberdinger quarry was to be seen quite often a rider without head, its horses of spirit of Zöpfe in tail and Mähne it was twisted. [13] Furthermore stories become over the Käppele, which tells old Wachttürmchen so mentioned of the Nippenburg. So the way is to be avoided after Schwieberdingen at the night, since the Käppelesgeist descends at night here of the Nippenburg after Schwieberdingen. [14]

Golf Course Schloss Nippenburg

The Golfanlage Schloss Nippenburg is located in direct neighbourhood to the castle. The once agriculcurally used area was transformed to a modern golf course in 1995. The course was designed by the German golfer Bernhard Langer. From 1995 to 1997 the German Open was held at Schloss Nippenburg.

Literature

  • Helmut Theurer: Die Nippenburg, ihre Geschichte und ihre Geschlechter. K.M. Leutrum von Ertingen, Schwieberdingen 1998.
  • Wilfried Pfefferkorn: Oberer Neckar. Burgen unseres Landes. J. Fink, Stuttgart 1973. ISBN 3-7718-0156-7
  • Max Miller, Gerhard Taddey: Baden-Württemberg. Handbuch der historischen Stätten Deutschlands. Bd 6. Kröner, Stuttgart 1965, 1980. ISBN 3-520-27602-X
  • Willi Müller: Schwieberdingen, das Dorf an der Straße. Grundriß einer Ortsgeschichte. Ungeheuer & Ulmer, Ludwigsburg 1961.
  • Klaus Graf: Sagen rund um Stuttgart. Braun, Karlsruhe 1995. ISBN 3-7650-8145-0

References

External links

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