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Nicolson, Sir Harold, 1886-1968, English biographer, historian, and diplomat, b. Tehran, Iran. Educated at Oxford, he entered the foreign office in 1909, and, until his resignation 20 years later, he represented the British government in various parts of the world. His work at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) prompted the study Peacemaking, 1919 (1933) and stimulated an interest in diplomacy that is reflected in Diplomacy (1939) and The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954, 3d ed. 1963). He served in the House of Commons from 1935 to 1945 and was knighted in 1953. Among the subjects of his skillful and sympathetic biographies are Paul Verlaine (1921), Tennyson (1923), Byron (1924), Swinburne (1926), Curzon (1934), Dwight Morrow (1935), King George V (1953), and Sainte-Beuve (1957). Other works include The Congress of Vienna (1946), Good Behaviour (1956), The Age of Reason (1961), and Kings, Courts, and Monarchy (1962). He was married to the novelist Vita Sackville-West.

See his diaries and letters, ed. by his son, Nigel Nicolson (3 vol., 1966-68); N. Nicolson, Portrait of a Marriage (1973).

Nicolson, Marjorie Hope, 1894-1981, American educator, b. Yonkers, N.Y., grad. Univ. of Michigan (B.A., 1914; M.A., 1918) and Yale (Ph.D., 1920). She was dean and professor at Smith from 1929 to 1941, when she became the first woman professor on the graduate faculties of Columbia. She remained there until 1962, serving her last eight years as chairman of the graduate department of English and Comparative Literature. In 1940 she became the first woman president of Phi Beta Kappa, and in 1963 served as president of the Modern Language Association of America. An authority on 17th-century literature and thought, she was the author of the prize-winning Newton Demands the Muse (1946), The Breaking of the Circle (1950), Science and Imagination (1956), Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory (1959), A Reader's Guide to Milton (1963), Pepys' Diary and the New Science (1965), and This Long Disease, My Life (1968).
Nicolson is a patronymic surname meaning "son of Nicholas". There are alternate spellings. Nicolson may refer to:


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