Nicolas

Nicolas

Janson, Nicolas: see Jenson, Nicolas.
Sarkozy, Nicolas (Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarkozy de Nagy-Bocsa), 1955-, French politician, president of France (2007-), b. Paris. The son of a minor Hungarian aristocrat who immigrated to France and married the daughter of Greek immigrants, Sarkozy became a lawyer and entered politics as a conservative. He was mayor (1983-2002) of Neuilly, a Paris suburb, and was elected to the National Assembly from the Hauts-de-Seine dept. in 1988 and reelected in 1993, 1995, and 1997. Sarkozy served in Premier Balladur's cabinet as budget minister (1993-94), and as Raffarin's interior minister (2002-04) he gained a reputation for being tough on crime and immigration. A longtime member of the neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic party (RPR), he joined the new center-right coalition, Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). He was appointed finance minister in 2004, but resigned later that year to become UMP party leader; from 2005 to 2007 he again served as interior minister. Popular and charismatic, but polarizing as well—especially when he staked out an outspoken law-and-order position in his second stint as interior minister—the energetic Sarkozy has been characterized as a media-savvy American-style politician. In late 2006 he announced his candidacy for the 2007 French presidential race, and he secured the UMP nomination for the post in Jan., 2007. Leading after the first round, he defeated Ségolène Royal, the Socialist candidate, in the May runoff to win the presidency. Following the Aug., 2008, Russo-Georgian conflict over South Ossetia, he actively negotiated a cease-fire and Russian withdrawal from Georgia proper.

See his autobiographical political manifesto, Testimony (2006, tr. 2007).

Lémery, Nicolas, 1645-1715, French chemist. He was a pharmacist and lecturer in Paris and was the author of a standard textbook in chemistry (1675) and of a treatise on antimony (1707).
Bourbaki, Nicolas, pseudonym under which a group of 20th cent. mathematicians has written a series of treatises on pure mathematics. The mathematicians have all been associated with the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris at some point in their careers; among them are the French scholars Claude Chevalley, André Weil, Henri Cartan, and Jean Dieudonné along with the American Samuel Eilenberg. The pseudonym was jokingly adopted from Gen. Charles Bourbaki, becuase of his disastrous defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.

The principal aim of the Bourbaki group (L'Association des Collaborateurs de Nicolas Bourbaki) is to provide a solid foundation for the whole body of modern mathematics. The method of exposition is axiomatic and abstract, logically coherent and rigorous, proceeding normally from the general to the particular, a style found to be not altogether congenial to many readers. The ongoing series of books began with Éléments de Mathématiques in 1939, and other books on algebra, set theory, topology, and other topics have followed. Many books in the series have become standard references, though some mathematicians are critical of their austerely abstract point of view.

Changarnier, Nicolas, 1793-1877, French general and politician. He served in Algeria and was briefly (1848) governor-general of Algeria, succeeding Louis Cavaignac. Elected to the constituent assembly in 1848 after the February Revolution, he resigned after the rising of the June Days to head the Paris national guard. Later the regular army troops in Paris were added to his command. A monarchist and Orleanist, Changarnier came to oppose the policies of Louis Napoleon and was exiled after the coup of 1851. He returned in 1859 and took part in the defense of Metz (1870) in the Franco-Prussian War. Again elected a deputy in 1871, he opposed a republic. He was made a life senator in 1875.
Desmarets, Nicolas, 1648-1721, French statesman; the nephew of Jean Baptiste Colbert. He became director of finances in 1703 and succeeded Michel Chamillart as controller general of finances in 1708. He tried to meet the huge expenses of the War of the Spanish Succession by issuing paper money and instituting an income tax, the dixième [Fr.,=tenth]. Those measures only intensified France's financial crisis, first by encouraging speculation that led to inflation and second by placing the burden of taxation on the poor and the middle class while exempting the privileged aristocracy.
Froment, Nicolas, fl. 2d half of 15th cent., French painter of the Provençal school. While in the service of René of Anjou at Avignon, he painted The Resurrection of Lazarus (Uffizi) and the triptych The Burning Bush (cathedral, Aix). He is credited also with the diptych of René and his wife, Jeanne Laval (Louvre).
Jenson or Janson, Nicolas, d. c.1480, Venetian printer, b. France. Jenson studied printing with Gutenberg at Mainz for three years. He was one of the first to design roman type, which was far superior in beauty and alignment of characters to that of John of Speyer. He started publishing under his own name and with his own type in 1470 in Venice, producing numerous celebrated and beautiful editions. His roman type of 1470 furnished inspiration for Garamond, Caslon, William Morris, Bruce Rogers, and other masters. After his death, his type was used by the Aldine Press.
Lancret, Nicolas, 1690-1743, French rococo painter. He studied in Gillot's studio, together with Watteau whose themes and manner he popularized. His favorite subjects were festivities, genre, and theatrical scenes, of which he painted a vast number in a pleasing, though somewhat stilted, style. Examples are in the Louvre (e.g., The Music Lesson, 1743) and in the National Gallery, London.
Fouquet or Foucquet, Nicolas, 1615-80, superintendent of finance (1653-61) under King Louis XIV of France. His loyalty to Cardinal Mazarin during the Fronde helped to secure his position. By his transactions with financiers, to whom he allowed huge profits, he impoverished the treasury and accumulated a vast personal fortune. He spent large sums for his own purposes, notably on his mansion at Vaux, and was a patron of literary men, among them Jean Baptiste Molière and Jean de La Fontaine. He was created marquis of Belle-Isle. Aroused by Jean Baptiste Colbert, who gave the king reports of Fouquet's mismanagement of funds, and made jealous by a magnificent fete he attended at Vaux, Louis XIV ordered Fouquet's arrest in 1661. The trial took three years. Fouquet was sentenced (1664) to banishment, but the king, still resentful, changed the sentence to life imprisonment.
Malebranche, Nicolas, 1638-1715, French philosopher. Malebranche's philosophy is a highly original synthesis of Cartesian and Augustinian thought. Its purpose was to reconcile the new science with Christian theology. Beginning with Descartes's dualism between mind and body, Malebranche developed a theory called occasionalism, which denied any interaction of the two realms. To Malebranche, the eternal truths are contained in the divine intellect, and scientific knowledge is possible only because the soul is part of the divine intellect. He summarized his beliefs in his famous assertion that we see all things in God, a statement that led to an extended controversy with the theologian Antoine Arnauld. The philosophy of Malebranche influenced such diverse minds as Leibniz, Berkeley, and John Norris. His chief works are De la recherche de la vérité (1674; tr. The Search for Truth, 1694) and Traité de la nature et de la grâce (1680).

See studies by M. E. Hobart (1982) and C. J. McCracken (1983).

Boileau-Despréaux, Nicolas, 1636-1711, French literary critic and poet. He was the spokesman of classicism, drawing his principles from his contemporaries, among them his friends Racine, Molière, and La Fontaine. His critical precepts are embodied in L'Art poétique (1674), a verse treatise; Le Lutrin (1683), a mock epic; 12 Satires (1st collected ed. 1716) and 12 Épǐtres (1st collected ed. 1701), after Horace; and Les Héros de roman (1688), a dialogue in literary criticism. Revered in the 18th cent. as a literary lawgiver, he was later detested by the romantics. Boileau's poetic reputation rests on his satires, especially Le Lutrin, on the clerical world; Satires III and VI, on life in Paris; and Satire X, on women. He was a zealous polemicist, notably in quarrels with Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin and Perrault.

See edition of Les Héros de roman by T. F. Crane (1902); study by G. Pocock (1980).

Jorga, Nicolas: see Iorga, Nicolae.
Poussin, Nicolas, 1594-1665, French painter, b. Les Andelys. Poussin was considered the greatest of living painters by his contemporaries. Although he spent most of his life in Italy, his painting became the standard for French classical art.

Poussin studied painting in the mannerist style in France until 1624, when he traveled to Rome via Venice. His early work in Rome (1624-33) manifests diversified tendencies. He executed many drawings of antique monuments for the great patron of the arts Cassiano del Pozzo. He experimented also with the baroque style of Pietro da Cortona and Lanfranco in works such as the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus (1629; Vatican). The paintings of Titian and Veronese influenced his choice of mythological and elegiac subjects.

Poussin's growing preoccupation with the works of antiquity and of Raphael resulted in a new clarity of composition in such paintings as the Adoration of the Magi (1633; Dresden) and The Golden Calf (c.1635; National Gall., London). His figures began to exhibit greater linear precision and sculptural solidity. Poussin became especially concerned with the didactic and philosophical possibilities of painting. He formulated the doctrines that became the basis of French classical and academic art, whereby a work was intended to arouse rational and intellectual, rather than visual, response in the viewer. His approach to and successful justification of this intellectualization profoundly influenced painting far into the 19th cent.

In 1640, Poussin was called to Paris by Louis XIII to displace Vouet as first painter to the king. Both the intrigues of Vouet and the task of administering the large-scale decoration of the Grand Gallery of the Louvre were distasteful to Poussin. A cold austerity characterizes his few works that remain from this period, e.g., Truth Rescuing Time (Louvre). By 1643, Poussin had returned to Rome. He then produced works that are considered the purest embodiments of French classicism. A comparison of his early and late versions of Shepherds of Arcadia (c.1629, Chatsworth Coll., England; and c.1650, Louvre) shows the fundamental change in his outlook. The poetic, dynamic emphasis of the early work was abandoned for the contemplative aspects of the subject in the later work. In his two series of the Seven Sacraments (1640s), he concentrated upon the symbolic meaning of each sacrament, stressing monumental solemnity and dignity.

During the late 1640s Poussin turned to landscape painting. In such works as the Death of Phocion (1648) he constructed a classical landscape, ordered with mathematical precision through the use of architecture. A renewed interest in mythology led him to favor esoteric themes, as in the Landscape with Orion (1658; Metropolitan Mus.). In his late work he developed a freer conception of nature, while his figures were considerably reduced in size and importance. Of his last works, the paintings in the series known as the Four Seasons (1660-64; Louvre) are most notable.

See his drawings ed. by W. F. Friedlander (4 vol., 1939-63); his paintings ed. by A. Blunt (1966); studies by C. Wright (1985) and Y. Zolotov (1985).

Chuquet, Nicolas, c.1450-1500, French mathematician, probably b. Paris. Little is known of Chuquet's life. At Lyons in 1484 he composed a manuscript on the science of numbers, which was finally published in two parts in 1880 and 1881. The first part, called the "Triparty," was a treatise on algebra and contained the first use of the radical sign with an index (such as the number 3, indicating a cube root); the second part contained the statement of, and the replies to, a set of 156 mathematical problems.
Catinat, Nicolas, 1637-1712, marshal of France. The son of a magistrate, he won promotion by merit rather than by wealth or descent. In the War of the Grand Alliance he commanded against Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, whom he defeated in N Italy at Staffarda (1690) and at Marsaglia (1693). Early in the War of the Spanish Succession, he commanded the French army in Italy, against Prince Eugene of Savoy, but after suffering reverses he was replaced. He retired in 1705 and later wrote his memoirs.
Gombert, Nicolas, c.1500-c.1560, Flemish composer. Gombert was the greatest follower of Josquin des Prés. He served at the court of Emperor Charles V. His sacred works make great use of imitative counterpoint; his secular songs express delight in nature.
Perrot, Nicolas, 1644-c.1718, French explorer in Canada and the Old Northwest. He came to New France as a child and, in service of the Jesuit missionaries, became acquainted with the Native Americans and Native American languages. Later, as a fur trader around Green Bay, he acquired considerable influence over the Indians of Wisconsin and in 1670 was sent to the West by Frontenac to take formal possession for France. In 1684, with Duluth, he helped bring the western Native Americans into the French campaign against the Iroquois, and in 1690 he visited Mackinac to prevent an Iroquois alliance.

Perrot was made (1685) commandant of the territory around Green Bay and opened trade with the Sioux as well as with other Indians and in 1689 formally claimed possession of the upper Mississippi region for New France. Probably in 1690 he discovered the lead mines of SW Wisconsin. When all trading licenses were revoked, he returned to Lower Canada and was employed as Indian interpreter in 1701. He is best remembered for his Mémoire sur les mɶurs, coustumes et relligion des sauvages de l'Amérique Septentrionale (1864), the one memoir to survive out of his many writings.

Appert, Nicolas, also known as François Appert, 1750-1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy. Appert, already an experienced chef, began to experiment in his workshop at Massy, near Paris, and in 1810 was awarded the prize for his method. The method, based on the idea that heat destroys or neutralizes the ferments that cause food spoilage, involved cooking foods in corked jars. Appert published several editions of his results (The Art of Preserving, tr. 1920) and with his prize money opened the first commercial cannery in the world.

Rimbaud, detail from “Un Coin de table,” oil painting by Henri Fantin-Latour, 1872; in elipsis

(born Oct. 20, 1854, Charleville, France—died Nov. 10, 1891, Marseille) French poet and adventurer. The provincial son of an army captain, he had begun by age 16 to write violent, blasphemous poems, and he formulated an aesthetic doctrine stating that a poet must become a seer, break down the restraints and controls on personality, and thus become the instrument for the voice of the eternal. He was invited to Paris by Paul Verlaine, with whom he had a homosexual relationship and engaged in a wild and dissipated life. The Drunken Boat (written 1871), perhaps his finest poem, displays his astonishing verbal virtuosity and a daring choice of images and metaphors. In Les Illuminations (written 1872–74), a collection of mainly prose poems, he tried to abolish the distinction between reality and hallucination. A Season in Hell (1873), which alternates prose passages with dazzling lyrics, became his farewell to poetry at age 19. After they had a falling-out, Verlaine shot and wounded Rimbaud; afterward their final meeting ended in a violent quarrel. Rimbaud abandoned literature and from 1875 led an international vagabond life as a merchant and trader, mainly in Ethiopia; he died at age 37 after his leg was amputated. The Dionysian power of his verse and his liberation of language from the constraints of form greatly influenced the Symbolist movement and 20th-century poetry.

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(born 1594, Villers, France—died Nov. 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States) French painter. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII, he spent his entire career in Rome, where he became an admirer of ancient Roman civilization. In early works, he depicted themes from Classical mythology in a painterly style reminiscent of such Venetian masters as Titian. Turning to Raphael for inspiration, he began in the mid 1630s to develop a style marked by Classical clarity and monumentality. His late masterworks, such as Holy Family on the Steps (1648), employ a style calculated to express virtue and rectitude, featuring only a few figures painted in harsh colours against a severe background. In his landscapes, such as Landscape with Polyphemus (1649), the disorder of nature is reduced to the order of geometry. His austere and highly ordered compositions influenced generations of French painters, including Jacques-Louis David, J.-A.-D. Ingres, and Paul Cézanne.

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(born Aug. 6, 1638, Paris, France—died Oct. 13, 1715, Paris) French priest, theologian, and philosopher. His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile Cartesianism with the thought of St. Augustine and with Neoplatonism. Central to Malebranche's metaphysics is his doctrine of occasionalism, according to which what are commonly called “causes” are merely “occasions” on which God acts to produce effects. His principal work is Search After Truth (3 vol., 1674–75).

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(born 1594, Villers, France—died Nov. 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States) French painter. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII, he spent his entire career in Rome, where he became an admirer of ancient Roman civilization. In early works, he depicted themes from Classical mythology in a painterly style reminiscent of such Venetian masters as Titian. Turning to Raphael for inspiration, he began in the mid 1630s to develop a style marked by Classical clarity and monumentality. His late masterworks, such as Holy Family on the Steps (1648), employ a style calculated to express virtue and rectitude, featuring only a few figures painted in harsh colours against a severe background. In his landscapes, such as Landscape with Polyphemus (1649), the disorder of nature is reduced to the order of geometry. His austere and highly ordered compositions influenced generations of French painters, including Jacques-Louis David, J.-A.-D. Ingres, and Paul Cézanne.

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(born 1615, Paris, France—died March 23, 1680, Pignerol) French finance minister (1653–61) in the early years of the reign of Louis XIV. He was a wealthy supporter of the powerful Cardinal Mazarin and of the royal government during the turmoil of the Fronde (1648–53), when he lent large sums to the treasury. In 1653 he was appointed superintendent of finance. After Mazarin's death (1661) Jean-Baptiste Colbert sought to succeed Fouquet by destroying his reputation with the king. Fouquet was arrested for embezzlement, while Colbert suppressed papers that would have absolved him. Though public opinion was in his favour, he was sentenced in 1664 to imprisonment in the fortress of Pignerol, where he died.

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(born Aug. 6, 1638, Paris, France—died Oct. 13, 1715, Paris) French priest, theologian, and philosopher. His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile Cartesianism with the thought of St. Augustine and with Neoplatonism. Central to Malebranche's metaphysics is his doctrine of occasionalism, according to which what are commonly called “causes” are merely “occasions” on which God acts to produce effects. His principal work is Search After Truth (3 vol., 1674–75).

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(born 1615, Paris, France—died March 23, 1680, Pignerol) French finance minister (1653–61) in the early years of the reign of Louis XIV. He was a wealthy supporter of the powerful Cardinal Mazarin and of the royal government during the turmoil of the Fronde (1648–53), when he lent large sums to the treasury. In 1653 he was appointed superintendent of finance. After Mazarin's death (1661) Jean-Baptiste Colbert sought to succeed Fouquet by destroying his reputation with the king. Fouquet was arrested for embezzlement, while Colbert suppressed papers that would have absolved him. Though public opinion was in his favour, he was sentenced in 1664 to imprisonment in the fortress of Pignerol, where he died.

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Saint-Nicolas is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Province of Liege. On January 1 2006 Saint-Nicolas had a total population of 22,666. The total area is 6.84 km² which gives a population density of 3,313 inhabitants per km². It has the highest population density of any Belgian municipality outside the Brussels-Capital Region.

Since 1977 it comprises the old municipalities of Montegnée, Saint-Nicolas and Tilleur.

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