Newport

Newport

[noo-pawrt, -pohrt, nyoo-]
Newport, Christopher, 1565?-1617, English mariner, commander of early voyages to Virginia. He commanded a privateering expedition to the West Indies (1592) that returned to England with the Spanish vessel Madre de Dios, the richest prize ever taken by the Elizabethan privateers. He was employed by the London Company to command their expeditions to Virginia. On the first voyage he sailed from England with Capt. John Smith and other colonists in Dec., 1606, and arrived near the site of Jamestown in May, 1607. He returned to England in July and sailed again for the colony in October with the "first supply" of emigrants and provisions, reaching Jamestown in Jan., 1608, to find the colonists greatly reduced and in dissension. Later that year he brought the "second supply" from England and explored the country beyond the falls of the James River. On his fourth voyage from England (1609), Newport was wrecked on the Bermudas with Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers and did not reach Virginia until May, 1610. In 1611 he made his last voyage to Virginia, taking Sir Thomas Dale to the colony. In his later years Newport made three voyages for the East India Company, dying at Bantam, in present Indonesia, on the last.
Newport, town (1991 pop. 19,758), Isle of Wight, S England. It is also a port and the commercial center of the island, with agricultural markets and light industries (plastics, soft drinks, and woodworking). In the 17th cent., King Charles I was imprisoned in nearby Carisbrooke Castle. The town grammar school dates from the early 17th cent., and there are remains of a Roman villa.
Newport. 1 City (1990 pop. 18,871), seat of Campbell co., N Ky., on the Ohio River opposite Cincinnati and on the east bank of the Licking River opposite Covington; laid out 1791, inc. as a city 1835. Its industries produce wood, food, paper, and steel products; building equipment; and oil and gas. Newport was a station on the Underground Railroad, and Kentucky's only antislavery newspaper was edited there in the 1850s.

2 City (1990 pop. 28,227), seat of Newport co., SE Rhode Island, on Aquidneck (also called Rhode) Island; settled 1639, inc. 1784. A port of entry, the city's economy is tied to its many naval installations. Also important are the tourist industry, educational facilities, fishing, and the manufacture of electrical equipment. Newport hosts yacht races and was the site of the America's Cup races until the early 1980s. Tennis was popularized there; the National Tennis Hall of Fame is in the Newport casino. Jazz and folk festivals, as well as other music and dance fests are held there. The city is the seat of Salve Regina Univ., the U.S. Naval War College, and other naval training schools. Fort Adams State Park is nearby. Newport Bridge (1969) spans the east passage of Narragansett Bay, linking the city with Jamestown.

Founded in 1639, Newport was united (1640) with Portsmouth and then entered (1654) in a permanent federation with Providence and Warwick. Shipbuilding, dating from 1646, and foreign commerce brought pre-Revolutionary prosperity to Newport. In the American Revolution the British occupied the town (1776-79); many buildings were destroyed, most of the citizens moved away, and Newport never regained its former economic prestige. It was replaced in importance by Providence, with which it was joint state capital until 1900.

In the 19th cent., Newport developed as a fashionable resort of the wealthy, and many palatial "cottages" were built. Outstanding tourist attractions from that era are The Breakers, the former summer house of Cornelius Vanderbilt; Belcourt Castle; The Elms; Marble House; and Château-sur-Mer. Cliff Walk and Ocean Drive are known for their spectacular views of the ocean and the coastline.

Of historic interest are the Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House (c.1675; scene of a Stamp Act riot in 1765); the Newport Tower (thought to date from the 17th cent.); Trinity Church (1726); Touro Synagogue (1763), oldest in the country and since 1946 a national historic site; the Redwood Library and Athenaeum (1747); and the brick market house or city hall (1762). Matthew Perry was born in Newport.

See E. Warburton, In Living Memory: A Chronicle of Newport, Rhode Island, 1888-1988 (1988).

Newport, Welsh Casnewydd, city (1991 pop. 129,900), 74 sq mi (191 sq km), SE Wales, on the Usk River. Lumber, tea, automobiles, electronics, semiconductors, and aircraft are made; steel and various other metals, paper, and chemicals are manufactured. Newport was first granted a charter in 1385. In 1839, Newport was the scene of Chartist riots (see Chartism). Long a county borough (a district from 1974 to 1996), Newport was made a city in 2002. The Church of St. Woollos, partly Norman, is the cathedral of the Monmouth diocese. The Univ. of Wales College is there.

City (pop., 2000: 180,150) and port of entry, southeastern Virginia, U.S., at the mouth of the James River. The site was settled in 1621 by 50 colonists from Ireland. It was incorporated as a city in 1896 and was an important embarkation point in both World Wars. With Norfolk and Portsmouth, it constitutes the Port of Hampton Roads. It is the site of one of the largest shipyards in the world, producing luxury liners, aircraft carriers, and nuclear-powered submarines.

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City (pop., 2000: 26,475) and port of entry, southeastern Rhode Island, U.S., at the mouth of Narragansett Bay. Founded in 1639 by colonists from Massachusetts, it became a haven for religious refugees. With Providence, it was the joint capital of the state until 1900. Newport has held many of the America's Cup yacht races, and it is a centre for naval education. It also is the site of one of Cornelius Vanderbilt's mansions (The Breakers) and the Touro synagogue, which is the oldest in the U.S.

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Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and a major United States Navy training center. The city is the seat of Newport County. Newport was known for being one of the "Summer White Houses" during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy. The population was 26,475 at the 2000 census.

History

Colonial Period

Newport was founded in 1639 and its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, and Henry Bull, who left Portsmouth, Rhode Island after a political fallout with Anne Hutchinson and her followers. As part of the agreement, Coddington and his followers took control of the southern side of the island. They were soon joined by Nicholas Easton, who had recently been expelled from Massachusetts for holding heretical beliefs. The settlement soon grew to be the largest of the four original towns of Rhode Island. Many of the first colonists in Newport quickly became Baptists, and in 1640 the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed under the leadership of John Clarke.

Peace did not last long in Newport, as many did not like Coddington's autocratic style. As a result, by 1650 a counter faction led by Nicholas Easton was formed. The Coddington/Easton divide would dominate Newport politics for much of the 17th century. Newport soon grew to become the most important port in colonial Rhode Island. A public school was established in 1640. In 1658, a group of Jews fleeing the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal were allowed to settle in Newport (Jews fleeing Brazil after defending Dutch interests there against the Portuguese were denied the right to stay in then-Dutch New York until governor Peter Stuyvesant finally relented in 1655; seeking asylum in Spain and Portugal was not an option). The Newport congregation, now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel, is the second oldest Jewish congregation in the United States and meets in the oldest standing synagogue in the United States, Touro Synagogue. At the same time, a large number of Quakers settled in Newport. The evidence of this population can be seen today in the fact that many streets in the oldest part of town known as the "The Point", are named after trees. The Quaker meetinghouse in Newport (1699) is the oldest house of worship in Rhode Island. In 1727, James Franklin (brother of Benjamin) was printing in Newport; in 1732, he published the first newspaper, the Rhode Island Gazette. In 1758, his son James founded the Mercury, a weekly paper. Throughout the 18th century the famous Goddard and Townsend furniture was made in Newport.

Throughout the eighteenth century, Newport suffered from an imbalance of trade with the largest colonial ports. As a result, Newport merchants were forced to develop alternatives to conventional exports.

Newport was also a major center of pirate activity during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. So many pirates used Newport as their base of operations that the London Board of Trade made an official complaint to the English government. The most famous pirate who made Newport his base was Thomas Tew. Tew was very popular with the locals; after one of his pirating voyages, it was reported that almost the whole town came out to greet him.

In the 1720s, colonial leaders, acting under pressure from the British government, arrested many pirates. Many were hanged in Newport and were buried on Goat Island.

During the colonial period, Newport was the center of the slave trade in New England. Many of the great fortunes made during this period were made in the slave trade. The Old Brick Market in Newport was the scene of many slave auctions. The Common Burial Ground on Farewell Street was where most of the slaves were buried.

American Revolution and 19th Century

During the American Revolution, Newport was the scene of much activity. One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, William Ellery, came from Newport. He later served on the Naval Committee. In the winter of 1775 and 1776, the Rhode Island legislature put militia General William West in charge of rooting out loyalists in Newport, and several notable individuals such as Joseph Wanton and Thomas Vernon were exiled to the northern part of the state. In the fall of 1776, the British, seeing that Newport could be used as a naval base to attack New York (which they had recently occupied) took over the city. Because most of the population was pro independence, the British allowed them to leave. The city was repopulated with loyalists and British soldiers. For the next three years, the whole of the Narragansett Bay area became one large battlefield, with Newport being a British fortress.

In the summer of 1778, the Americans began the campaign known as the Battle of Rhode Island. This was the first joint operation between the Americans and the French after the signing of the treaty of alliance. The Americans based in Tiverton, planned a formal siege of the town. However, the French (wanting a frontal assault) refused to take part in the siege. This weakened the American position and the British were able to expel the Americans from the island. The following year, the British, wanting to concentrate their forces in New York, abandoned Newport.

In 1780, the French under Rochambeau landed in Newport and for the rest of the war Newport was the base of the French forces in the United States. The first Catholic mass in Rhode Island was said in Newport during this time.

By the time the war ended (1783) Newport's population had fallen from over 9,000 (according to the census of 1774) to less than 4,000. Over 200 abandoned buildings were torn down in the 1780s. Also, the war destroyed Newport's economic wealth, as years of military occupation closed the city to any form of trade. The Newport merchants moved away, some to Providence, others to Boston and New York.

It was in Newport in 1791 that the Rhode Island General Assembly, acting under pressure from the merchant community of Providence, voted to ratify the Constitution and become the 13th state.

The city is the site of the last residence of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the birthplace of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and the Reverend William Ellery Channing.

Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, wealthy southern planters seeking to escape the heat began to build summer cottages on Bellevue Avenue such as Kingscote (1839). Eventually wealthy Yankees such as the Wetmore family also began constructing larger mansions such as Chateau-sur-Mer (1852) nearby. Most of these early families made a substantial part of their fortunes in the Old China Trade. They were followed by the richest families in the country, such as the Vanderbilts and Astors who constructed the largest "cottages", such as The Breakers (1895) in the late nineteenth century.

In the mid 19th century, a large number of Irish immigrants settled in Newport. The Fifth Ward of Newport (in the southern part of the city) became a staunch Irish neighborhood for many generations. To this day, St. Patrick's Day is an important day of pride and celebration in Newport, with a large parade going down Thames Street.

The oldest Catholic parish in Rhode Island, St. Mary's is located on Spring Street, though the current building is not the original one.

Current Era

Until 1900, Newport was one of two capitals of Rhode Island, the other being Providence. The state legislature would alternate its sessions between the two cities. Connecticut was the only other state to have more than one capital at one time.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Jacqueline Bouvier were married in St. Mary's Church in Newport on September 12, 1953.

Presidents Kennedy and Eisenhower both made Newport the sites of their "Summer White Houses" during their years in office. Eisenhower stayed at Quarters A at the Naval War College, while Kennedy used Hammersmith Farm.

In the 20th century, immigrants from Portugal and the Caribbean began settling in Newport, adding to the rich diversity of the city.

In 1900, 22,204 people lived in Newport, Rhode Island; in 1910, 27,149; in 1920, 30,255; and in 1940, 30,532.

The city has long been entwined with the U.S. Navy. From 1952 to 1973, it hosted the Cruiser-Destroyer Force of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, and subsequently it has from time to time hosted smaller numbers of warships. It held the campus of the U.S. Naval Academy during the Civil War, when the undergraduate officer training school was temporarily moved north from Annapolis, Maryland. It remains home to the U.S. Naval War College and the Naval Education and Training Command (NETC), the center of Surface Warfare Officer training, and a large division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center. The aircraft carriers USS Saratoga (CV-60) and USS Forrestal (CV-59) moored at the docks used by the Cruiser-Destroyer Force.

The departure of the Cruiser-Destroyer fleet in 1973 was devastating to the local economy. The population of Newport decreased, businesses closed, and property values plummeted. However, in the late 1960s, the city had began revitalizing the downtown area with the construction of America's Cup Avenue, malls of stores and condominiums, and upscale hotels. Construction was completed on the Newport Bridge. The Preservation Society of Newport County began opening Newport's historic mansions to the public, and the tourist industry became Newport's primary commercial enterprise over the subsequent years.

Geography

Newport is located at . It is the largest city on Aquidneck Island in Narragansett Bay. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.5 square miles (29.7 km²), of which, 7.9 square miles (20.6 km²) of it is land and 3.5 square miles (9.2 km²) of it (30.86%) is water. The Newport Bridge, the longest suspension bridge in New England, connects Newport to neighboring Conanicut Island across the East Passage of the Narragansett Bay.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 26,475 people, 11,566 households, and 5,644 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,336.3 people per square mile (1,287.4/km²). There were 13,226 housing units at an average density of 1,666.7/sq mi (643.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.12% White, 7.75% African American, 0.85% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.41% from other races, and 3.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.54% of the population.

There were 11,566 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.3% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.2% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the city the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 14.6% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,669, and the median income for a family was $54,116. Males had a median income of $37,780 versus $27,492 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,441. About 12.9% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over.

Culture

Newport has one of the highest concentrations of colonial homes in the nation, in the downtown Newport Historic District, one of three National Historic Landmark Districts in the city. Many of these homes were restored in the late 20th century through grants made by Newport resident Doris Duke, as well as other local efforts such as Operation Clapboard. As a result, Newport's colonial heritage is well-preserved and documented at the Newport Historical Society. In addition to the colonial architecture, the city is known for its Gilded Age mansions, which have also received extensive restoration from both private owners and non-profits such as the Preservation Society of Newport County.

Another National Historic Landmark District, Bellevue Avenue, is the home of the International Tennis Hall of Fame, where important tennis players are commemorated, as well as a number of mansions dating back to the Gilded Age, including The Breakers, Belcourt Castle, Chateau-sur-Mer, The Elms, Marble House, Rosecliff, Rough Point, and the William Watts Sherman House. Some of these are open for guided tours. The nearby Blithewold Mansion, Gardens and Arboretum has a fine collection of trees and plants, including the largest sequoia on the East Coast.

With coastlines on the west, south and east, Newport is a maritime city. Its harbors teem with commercial fishing boats, power and sail pleasure craft. It is known as the sailing capitol of the United States. Many defenses by the New York Yacht Club of the America's Cup yachting prize took place here. Newport Country Club was one of the five founding clubs of the United States Golf Association; it hosted the first U.S. Open and the first U.S. Amateur, both held in 1895. The Newport Country Club hosted the 1996 U.S. Amateur Open, made notable by Tiger Woods' third consecutive win of said Open and concurrent entrance to the PGA. In June 2006, the city hosted the U.S. Women's Open. In June it also hosts the annual Campbell's Hall of Fame Championships tennis tournament as part of the ATP Tour (it is traditionally the last grass court event of the season). Each August the International Tennis Hall of Fame Champions Cup is held; this event is part of the Outback Champions Series.

In 2001, Newport became the new home of the Newport Gulls baseball team of the NECBL. The city hosted the 2005 NECBL All-Star Game at Cardines Field, which, originally built in 1908, is one of the oldest active baseball parks in the country. The Gulls, the historic Sunset League, and other teams attract thousands of fans to Cardines weekly throughout the summer. Directly up West Marlborough Street from the ballpark is the White Horse Tavern, built prior to 1673, and considered to be one of the oldest surviving taverns in the United States.

Newport is also home to the Newport Tower, Salve Regina University, Hammersmith Farm, Prescott Farm, and the Touro Synagogue, the oldest Jewish house of worship in the Western hemisphere, as well as the Newport Public Library, Redwood Library and Athenaeum, the nation's oldest lending library. George Washington had given a speech at the Touro Synagogue extolling the virtues of freedom of worship and that the Jews were allowed to live and worship freely in the United States. This speech has often been referenced by American Jews to show gratitude and admiration for living in the United States.

Newport plays host to a number of festivals during the summer months, including the Newport Jazz Festival, the Sunset Music Festival, the Newport Folk Festival (where Bob Dylan shocked the crowd by playing an electric guitar), the Newport International Film Festival, and the Newport International Boat Show.

Outdoor activities

Aquidneck Island is home to many beautiful beaches, most public and a few private. In Newport, the largest public beach, Easton's beach or First Beach, has a view of the famed Cliff Walk. Second Beach, in neighboring Middletown, is a fantastic beach for waves, with a surfer's beach abutting. There are three private beaches in Newport, Bailey's Beach (Spouting Rock Beach Association), Hazard's Beach, and Gooseberry Beach, each highly exclusive and located on Ocean Drive.

The Newport Cliff Walk is considered one of the most popular attractions in the city. It is a 3.5 mile (5.6 km) public access walkway bordering the shoreline, and has been designated a National Recreation Trail.

Brenton Point State Park is also an excellent spot for the family, with exquisite vistas, and is home to the annual Brenton Point Kite Festival.

Fort Adams, an historical fort dating back to the War of 1812 houses the Museum of Yachting and hosts both the Newport Folk Festival and the Newport Jazz Festival annually. It too has spectacular views of Narragansett Bay, and is a perfect location for family picnics.

Since Newport has a strong maritime heritage, water based recreation is a primary attraction. Options include sailing, sea kayaking, and windsurfing. For many years Newport was home to the series of yacht races for the America's Cup. One can charter 12-Meter yachts that have raced in the America's Cup for a pleasure cruise on Narragansett Bay.

Schools

Sister cities

Notable people

See also

References

Further reading

External links

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