During the 1930s, Chamberlain's professed commitment to avoiding war with Hitler resulted in his controversial policy of "appeasement," which culminated in the Munich Pact (1938). Although contemporaries and scholars during and after the war criticized Chamberlain for believing that Hitler could be appeased, recent research argues that Chamberlain was not so naive and that appeasement was a shrewd policy developed to buy time for an ill-prepared Britain to rearm. After Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he pledged military support to Poland and led Britain to war in September. After the British debacle in Norway, he was forced to resign in May, 1940. He was lord president of the council under Winston Churchill until Oct., 1940, and died a few weeks later.
See biographies by W. R. Rock (1969) and D. Dilks (vol. 1, 1984); R. Cockett, Twilight of Truth (1989); J. Charmley, Chamberlain and the Lost Peace (1990).
(born March 18, 1869, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Nov. 9, 1940, Heckfield, near Reading, Hampshire) British prime minister (1937–40). Son of Joseph Chamberlain and half brother of Austen Chamberlain, he prospered in the metalworking industry in Birmingham; as the city's lord mayor (1915–16) he organized England's first municipal bank. He was a member of the House of Commons (1918–40), during which he served in Conservative governments as minister of health and chancellor of the Exchequer. As prime minister (1937–40), he sought to prevent the outbreak of a general European war over Adolf Hitler's demand that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. In 1938 he and France's Édouard Daladier granted most of Hitler's demands in the Munich agreement, after which he returned to England a popular hero, speaking of “peace in our time.” He repudiated appeasement after Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, and when Germany attacked Poland, he declared war. He lost the support of many Conservatives after the failure of a British expedition to Norway and resigned in 1940.
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According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²), of which, 0.4 square miles (1.1 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (8.70%) is water.
There were 47 households out of which 44.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.1% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.03.
The median income for a household in the village was $38,125, and the median income for a family was $38,438. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the village was $14,001. There were 18.9% of families and 19.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including 22.9% of under eighteens and none of those over 64.