Later, as neuroanatomical knowledge became more sophisticated, the trend was toward naming pathways by their origin and termination. For example, the nigrostriatal pathway, which is degenerated in Parkinson's disease, runs from the substantia nigra (Latin, "black substance") to the corpus striatum (Latin, "striped body"). This naming can extend to include any number of structures in a pathway, such that the cerebellorubrothalamocortical pathway originates in the cerebellum, synapses in the red nucleus ("ruber" in Latin), on to the thalamus, and finally terminating in the cerebral cortex.
Sometimes, these two naming conventions coexist. For example, the name "pyramidal tract" has been mainly supplanted by lateral corticospinal tract in most texts. Note that the "old" name was primarily descriptive, evoking the pyramids of antiquity, from the appearance of this neural pathway in the medulla oblongata. The "new" name is based primarily on its origin (in the primary motor cortex, Brodmann area 4) and termination (onto the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord).
Some neurons are responsible for conveying information over long distances. For example, motor neurons, which travel from the spinal cord to the muscle, can have axons up to a meter in length in humans; the longest axon in the human body is almost two meters long in tall individuals and runs from the great toe to the medulla oblongata of the brainstem. These are archetypical examples of neural pathways.
Wipo Publishes Patent of Eos Neuroscience, University of Southern California, Horsager Alan, Smith Andrew, Matteo Benjamin C. for "Modulation Neural Pathways" (American Inventors)
Aug 22, 2012; GENEVA, Aug. 22 -- Publication No. WO/2012/051599 was published on April 19. Title of the invention: "MODULATION NEURAL...