) is a neologism
that was first popularized by Italian medievalist Umberto Eco
in his 1973 essay "Dreaming in the Middle Ages. The term has no clear definition but has since been used by various writers such as medieval historians
who see it as the intersection between popular fantasy and medieval history
; as a term describing the post-modern
study of medieval history; and as political theory about modern international relations
The widespread interest in medieval themes in popular culture
, especially computer games
such as MMORPGs
, neo-medieval music
, and popular literature
, has been called neomedieval. Critics have discussed why medieval themes continue to fascinate audiences in a modern, heavily technological world. A possible explanation is the need for a romanticized historical narrative
to clarify the confusing panorama of current political and cultural events.
The idea of neomedievalism in political theory was first discussed in 1977 by theorist Hedly Bull
in The Anarchial Society: A Study of Order in World Politics
(pg. 254-55). Hedly Bull suggested society was moving towards a form of "neomedievalism" in which individual notions of rights and a growing sense of a "world common good" were undermining national sovereignty
. He saw a complex layering of international, national and subnational organizations which might help "avoid the classic dangers of the system of sovereign states by a structure of overlapping structures and cross-cutting loyalties that hold all peoples together in a universal society while at the same time avoiding the concentration inherent in a world government."
Stephen J. Kobrin in 1998 added the forces of the digital world economy to the picture of neomedievalism. In an article entitled "Back to the Future: Neomedievalism and the Postmodern Digital World Economy" published in 1998 in the Journal of International Affairs, argues that sovereign state as we know it—defined within certain territorial borders—is about to change profoundly, if not to wither away, due in part to the digital world economy created by the Internet, suggesting that cyberspace is a trans-territorial domain operating outside of the jurisdiction of national law.
Although Hedly Bull originally envisioned neomedievalism as a positive trend which might help "avoid the classic dangers of the system of sovereign states", neomedievalism has its critics. Bruce Holsinger in Neomedievalism, Neoconservatism, and the War on Terror (2007) argues that neoconservatives have exploited neomedievalism's conceptual slipperiness for their own tactical ends.