Lan-nang, or more properly known as Lán-nâng-ōe (咱人話, also 咱儂話), is the Philippine variant of Hokkien. The name "Lán-nâng-ōe" means 'our (lán) people's (lâng) language (ōe)'. Its mother dialect is the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, China. Lan-nang is spoken among the Chinese residing in the Philippines. It is characterized by borrowings from Tagalog, Spanish, and Cantonese languages. It is also known by its heavy usage of words which are considered as colloquial or localized forms found in dialects from Amoy and Choan-Chiu. About 592,200 people, or 98.7% of all Chinese in the Philippines speak it as their mother language. Although Lan-nang is not recognized in the linguistic academe, in this article, however, it is treated as a variant of the Amoy dialect, and not as a dialect, per se.
In some situations, Lan-nang is written in the Latin alphabet
. With the direction of the Chinese Congress on World Evangelization
-Philippines, an international organization of Overseas Chinese
Christian churches around the world, romanization of Lan-nang is leaning highly on the Pe̍h-ōe-jī
b, ch, chh, g, h, j, k, kh, l, m, n, ng, p, ph, s, t, th
- Vowels: a, i, u, e, o, o͘
- Diphthongs: ai, au, ia, iu, io, ui, oa, oe
- Triphthongs: iau, oai
- Nasals: m, n, ng
Tones are expressed by diacritics; checked syllables (i.e. those ending with glottal stops
) are followed by the letter h. Where diacritics are not technically available, e.g. on some parts of the internet, tone numbers may be used instead.
- a (yinping)
- á (shangsheng)
- à (yinqu)
- ah (yinru)
- â (yangping)
- ā (yangqu)
- a̍h (yangru)
Examples for the seven tones: chhiūⁿ 象 (elephant), pà 豹 (leopard), bé 馬 (horse), ti 豬 (pig), chôa 蛇 (snake), ah 鴨 (duck), lo̍k 鹿 (deer)
Hello!:Dí hō, dí hō? (lit. "[Are] you well, you well?)Good morning!:Ho za ki.I don't know.:Guá m̄ zai yaⁿ.My surname is Chua.:Gua si chua.
- Note: Chua is the most common Chinese surname in the Philippines.Do you know how to speak Lan-nang?:Dí eh-hiao kong Lan-nang-oé bâ?Where is the soap?:Hï-gé sá-bun tí-to-lò'?
- Note: 'sá-bun', though sounds similar to the Tagalog sabon, is not borrowed from that language. In Taiwanese, which is a variant of Hokkien that is not influenced by Tagalog, it is pronounced as sap-bûn. Etymologically speaking, perhaps both Taiwanese and Tagalog ultimately derive sap-bûn/sabon from the Romance languages that had brought the concept of soap to them (Portuguese sabão and Spanish jabón respectively).I love you very much.:Gua ya bantai tia di.Can you get me a glass?:Dí e zuì-dit ká-oá tuè ji pui bo?
- Note: "Ji pui" (一杯) literally means "one glass" and fluent speakers of the language use this. However, the Tagalog word "baso" is also sometimes used.Do you eat noodles?:Dí e ziá' mì bâ?
- Note: Some people would use the Tagalog "pansit" instead of "mi" for noodles. But this does not happen often.Write a check for him.:Gan yi sia tse-ke.
- Note: 'tse-ke', like 'sabon', though commonly used in the Tagalog language, also has its roots in the Taiwanese dialect.Do you eat sweet potatoes?: Dí e ziá' ka-mú-ti bâ?
- Note: 'ka-mú-ti' is borrowed from Tagalog kamote, and ultimately from Spanish camote.Did you do well in the math exam?:Di so hak ko juwa ah?When are you going to China?:Dí ti-si beh'-khï Tňg-soaⁿ?
- Note: 'Tňg-soaⁿ(唐山)', meaning China, is the colloquial term for 'Tiong-kok (中國)'. In the Lan-nang variant of Hokkien, the former is more used.His friend is in the hospital:Yi e siong-hó ti piⁿ-chù.
- Note: 'siong-hó' (相好), meaning "friend", is the colloquial term for 'pêng-iú' (朋友), while 'piⁿ-chù' (病厝), meaning "hospital" or "house for the sick", is the colloquial term for 'yi-î'.Where are you going?:Dí beh'-khí to-lò'?Damn! You're so stupid!:Saí nya! Di tua diap gong!
Some of the newer immigrants from the Mainland brought these words. It is considered vulgar to speak such words in public especially when spoken to other people. Here are some examples for awareness:Piao si, Tsap Jing, Khamlan, Jing si, Lan chao bin, Sai nya:
Lan-nang-ōe is spoken throughout the Philippines where there are significant numbers of Hokkien Chinese. Cities in the Philippines that have a significant number of Chinese include Metro Manila
, Angeles City
, Davao City
, Vigan, Ilocos Sur
, San Fernando City, Pampanga
, Ilagan, Isabela
, Cauayan City
, Cabatuan, Isabela
, Naga City
, Cebu City
, Iloilo City
, Bacolod City
, Cagayan de Oro City
, and Zamboanga City
Although Lan-nang-ōe is generally mutually comprehensible with Hokkien
, including Taiwanese
, certain words in Lan-nang-ōe are only used in the Philippines. Often, this results in confusion in Lan-nang-ōe speakers, especially in China. Other aspects of Lan-nang-ōe's uniqueness is its massive use of Hokkien colloquial words (see Sample Phrases
above). Because there is an absence of a central agency governing Lan-nang-ōe, various subvarieties have developed. In Cebu, for example, instead of Tagalog, Cebuano words are also incorporated. The vast majority of the Chinese who came to the Philippines had their ancestral roots in China, so Lan-nang-ōe is closer to the Hokkien dialects spoken in China.