NMDAR Antagonist Neurotoxicity

APV (NMDAR antagonist)

APV ((2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; AP5, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) is a selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that competitively inhibits the active site of NMDAR.

APV blocks the cellular analog of classical conditioning in the sea slug Aplysia californica, and has similar effects on Aplysia long-term potentiation, since NMDA receptors are required for both. It is sometimes used in conjunction with the calcium chelator BAPTA to determine whether NMDARs are required for a particular cellular process.

APV is generally very fast acting within in vitro preparations, and can block NMDA receptor action at a reasonably small concentration. The active isomer of APV is considered to be the D configuration, although many preparations are available as a racemic mixture of D- and L-isomers. It is useful to isolate the action of other glutamate receptors in the brain, i.e. AMPA and kainate receptors.

APV can block the conversion of a silent synapse to an active one, since this conversion is NMDA receptor-dependent.

APV was developed by Jeff Watkins and Harry Olverman.

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