, fl. 670 B.C.
, lord of Saïs, Egypt. He was confirmed in his holding after the Assyrian conquest in 670; he was later taken to Nineveh in chains for plotting to revolt but was pardoned and restored. He probably fell opposing (663) the Nubian reconquest under Tanutamon. His son Psamtik
founded the XXVI dynasty. His grandson and Psamtik's son, the pharaoh Necho,
, took advantage of the confusion that followed the fall of Nineveh (612) to invade Palestine and Syria, both of which he took without difficulty. However, Necho's real objective was to reach Haran in time to assist the Assyrians who were under siege by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar. King Josiah of Judah tried (609 B.C.
) to stop him at Megiddo, but Josiah was defeated in battle and killed. Necho's failure to reach Haran resulted in the final defeat of Assyria. In 605, Necho fought with Nebuchadnezzar at Carchemish on the Euphrates and was thoroughly beaten. He fled to Egypt, where he remained for the rest of his life. He attempted to reexcavate the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea and also sent out a group of Phoenicians on a three-year expedition in which they were said to have circumnavigated Africa.
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