Mysia (Μυσία) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor or Anatolia (part of modern Turkey). It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Phrygians, Aeolian Greeks, and other groups.
The precise limits of Mysia are difficult to assign. The Phrygian frontier was fluctuating, while in the northwest the Troad was only sometimes included in Mysia. The northern portion was known as Mysia Minor or Hellespontica, while the southern was called Major or Pergamene.
Land and Elevation
The chief physical features of Mysia are the two mountains
at (7600 feet) in the north and Mount Temnus
in the south, which for some distance separates Mysia from Lydia
and is afterwards prolonged through Mysia to the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Adramyttium
. The major rivers in the northern part of the province are the Macestus
and its tributary, the Rhyndacus
, both of which rise in Phrygia
, and, after diverging widely through Mysia, unite their waters below the lake of Apollonia
about 15 miles from the Propontis. The Caïcus
in the south rises in Temnus, and from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea
, passing within a few miles of Pergamon
. In the northern portion of the province are two considerable lakes, Artynia
, or Apolloniatis (Abulliont Geul), and Aphnitis
(Maniyas Geul), which discharge their waters into the Macestus from the east and west respectively.
Cities in Mysia
The most important cities were Pergamon in the valley of the Caïcus, and Cyzicus
on the Propontis. The whole sea-coast was studded with Greek towns, several of which were places of considerable importance; thus the northern portion included Parium
, and the southern Assus
. Further south, on the Eleatic Gulf
, were Elaea
A minor episode in the Trojan War
cycle in Greek mythology
has the Greek fleet land at Mysia, mistaking it for Troy
wounds their king, Telephus
, after he slays a Greek; Telephus later pleads with Achilles
to heal the wound. This coastal region ruled by Telephus is alternatively named Teuthrania
in Greek mythology, and was previously ruled by a King Teuthras
. In the Iliad
represents the Mysians as allies of Troy, with the Mysian forces led by Ennomus
(a prophet) and Chromius
, sons of Arsinous
. Homeric Mysia appears to have been much smaller in extent than historical Mysia, and did not extend north to the Hellespont or the Propontis. Homer does not mention any cities or landmarks in Mysia, and it is not clear exactly where Homeric Mysia was situated, although it was probably located somewhere between the Troad
(to the northwest of Mysia) and Lydia/Maeonia (to its south).
There are a number of Mysian inscriptions in a dialect of the Phrygian language, in a variant of the Phrygian alphabet. There are also a small number of references to a Lutescan language indigenous to Mysia in Aeolic Greek sources.