Political group that led the movement calling for a separate Muslim country to be created out of the partition of British India (1947). The league was founded in 1906, and in 1913 it adopted self-government for India as its goal. For several decades it supported Hindu-Muslim unity in an independent India, but in 1940, fearing Hindu domination, the league called for a separate state for India's Muslims. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Muslim League (as the All Pakistan Muslim League) became Pakistan's dominant political party, but it gradually declined in popularity and by the 1970s had disappeared altogether. Seealso Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
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Religio-political organization founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hsubdotasan al-Bannā (1906–49) that promoted the
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(d. 755) Leader of a revolutionary movement in Khorāsān whose efforts brought down the Umayyad dynasty. Born into the mawālī (non-Arab Muslim) class and of humble origins, he met an agent of the aynAbbāsid family while in prison (741). After his arranged release, he was sent to Khorāsān (745–746) to instigate a revolt. Recruiting from various discontented groups, he succeeded in overthrowing the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān II (750), and was rewarded with the governorship of Khorāsān. His popularity led the second aynAbbāsid caliph, al-Manssubdotūr, to view him as a threat and have him put to death. Seealso
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This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.The Qur'an describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim: Adam, Noah (Arabic: Nuh), Moses (Arabic: Mūsā) and Jesus (Arabic: ˤĪsā) and his apostles. The Qur'ān states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached his message and upheld his values. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'ān, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we submit and obey (wa ashahadu bil-muslimūna)."
Most Muslims consider making ritual prayer five times a day a religious duty (fard) (see the section on Ismāˤīlīs below for exceptions); these five prayers are known as fajr, dhuhr, ˤasr, maghrib and ˤishā'. There is also a special Friday prayer called jumuˤah. Currently, the number of Muslims is estimated to be 1.3 billion.
Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle of the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A literal translation would be "one who wants or seeks wholeness", where "wholeness" translates islāmun. In a religious sense, Al-Islām translates to "faith, piety", and Muslim to "one who has (religious) faith or piety". The feminine form of muslimun is muslimatun (مسلمة).
Until at least the mid 1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans. Many Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.
English writers of the 19th century and earlier sometimes used the words Mussulman, Musselman, or Mussulmaun. Variant forms of this word are still used by many Indo-European languages. These words are similar to the Turkish, Bosnian, Kurdish, Persian, French, Russian, Spanish, Italian, Hindi and Portuguese words for "Muslim".
According to the academician Carl Ernst, contemporary usage of the terms "Islam" and "Muslim" for the faith and its adherents is a modern innovation. As shown in the Quranic passage cited above, early Muslims distinguished between the Muslim, who has "submitted" and does the bare minimum required to be considered a part of the community, and the mu'min, the believer, who has given himself or herself to the faith heart and soul. Ernst writes: