Muslim

Muslim

[muhz-lim, mooz-, moos-]
Muslim [Arab.,=one who surrenders (himself to God), an agent form of the verb of which Islam is a verbal noun], one who has embraced Islam, a follower of Muhammad. The form Moslem is also common in English; the term Mussulman is now rarely used.
orig. All India Muslim League

Political group that led the movement calling for a separate Muslim country to be created out of the partition of British India (1947). The league was founded in 1906, and in 1913 it adopted self-government for India as its goal. For several decades it supported Hindu-Muslim unity in an independent India, but in 1940, fearing Hindu domination, the league called for a separate state for India's Muslims. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Muslim League (as the All Pakistan Muslim League) became Pakistan's dominant political party, but it gradually declined in popularity and by the 1970s had disappeared altogether. Seealso Mohammed Ali Jinnah.

Learn more about Muslim League with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arabic Al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn

Religio-political organization founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hsubdotasan al-Bannā (1906–49) that promoted the Qurhamzahān and Hsubdotadīth as the proper basis for society. It quickly gained many followers throughout North Africa and the Middle East and influenced the development of Muslim groups in other regions. It became politicized after 1938, rejecting Westernization, modernization, and secularization. Suppressed in Egypt after a 1954 assassination attempt on Gamal Abdel Nasser, it operated clandestinely in the 1960s and '70s. Beginning in the late 1980s, it experienced an upsurge; though its candidates were often listed under other parties, Brotherhood candidates competed in legislative elections in Egypt and Jordan.

Learn more about Muslim Brotherhood with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(d. 755) Leader of a revolutionary movement in Khorāsān whose efforts brought down the Umayyad dynasty. Born into the mawālī (non-Arab Muslim) class and of humble origins, he met an agent of the aynAbbāsid family while in prison (741). After his arranged release, he was sent to Khorāsān (745–746) to instigate a revolt. Recruiting from various discontented groups, he succeeded in overthrowing the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān II (750), and was rewarded with the governorship of Khorāsān. His popularity led the second aynAbbāsid caliph, al-Manssubdotūr, to view him as a threat and have him put to death. Seealso aynAbbāsid dynasty.

Learn more about Abū Muslim with a free trial on Britannica.com.

: A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form is Muslimah (مسلمة). Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)". Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Muslims believe that there is only one God, translated in Arabic as Allāh. Muslims believe that Islam existed long before Muhammad and that the religion had evolved with time from the time of Adam until the time of Muhammad and was completed with the revelation of verse 3 of Surah al-Maeda:
This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.
The Qur'an describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim: Adam, Noah (Arabic: Nuh), Moses (Arabic: Mūsā) and Jesus (Arabic: ˤĪsā) and his apostles. The Qur'ān states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached his message and upheld his values. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'ān, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we submit and obey (wa ashahadu bil-muslimūna)."

Most Muslims consider making ritual prayer five times a day a religious duty (fard) (see the section on Ismāˤīlīs below for exceptions); these five prayers are known as fajr, dhuhr, ˤasr, maghrib and ˤishā'. There is also a special Friday prayer called jumuˤah. Currently, the number of Muslims is estimated to be 1.3 billion.

Etymology

Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle of the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A literal translation would be "one who wants or seeks wholeness", where "wholeness" translates islāmun. In a religious sense, Al-Islām translates to "faith, piety", and Muslim to "one who has (religious) faith or piety". The feminine form of muslimun is muslimatun (مسلمة).

Other words for Muslim

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", pronounced /'mʊs.lɪm/ or /'mʌz.ləm/. The word is pronounced /'mʊslɪm/ in Arabic. It is sometimes spelled "Moslem", which some regard as offensive.

Until at least the mid 1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans. Many Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.

English writers of the 19th century and earlier sometimes used the words Mussulman, Musselman, or Mussulmaun. Variant forms of this word are still used by many Indo-European languages. These words are similar to the Turkish, Bosnian, Kurdish, Persian, French, Russian, Spanish, Italian, Hindi and Portuguese words for "Muslim".

Islam

Most Muslims accept as a Muslim anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah, which states, "There is no god except God and Muhammad is His Messenger." Currently, there are an estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, making it the second largest religion in the world.

Muslim and mu'min

One of the verses in the Qur'an makes a distinction between a mu'min, a believer, and a Muslim:
''The Arabs of the desert say, "We believe." (tu/minu) Say thou: Ye believe not; but rather say, "We profess Islam;" (aslamna) for the faith (al-imanu) hath not yet found its way into your hearts. But if ye obey [God] and His Apostle, he will not allow you to lose any of your actions: for [God] is Indulgent, Merciful ('The Koran 49:14, Rodwell).

According to the academician Carl Ernst, contemporary usage of the terms "Islam" and "Muslim" for the faith and its adherents is a modern innovation. As shown in the Quranic passage cited above, early Muslims distinguished between the Muslim, who has "submitted" and does the bare minimum required to be considered a part of the community, and the mu'min, the believer, who has given himself or herself to the faith heart and soul. Ernst writes:

"The Arabic term Islam itself was of relatively minor importance in classical theologies based on the Qur'an. If one looks at the works of theologians such as the famous al-Ghazali (d. 1111), the key term of religious identity is not Islam but iman(faith), and the one who possesses it is the mu'min (believer). Faith is one of the major topics of the Qur'an; it is mentioned hundreds of times in the sacred text. In comparison, Islam is a relatively less common term of secondary importance; it only occurs eight times in the Qur'an. Since, however, the term Islam had a derivative meaning relating to the community of those who have submitted to God, it has taken on a new political significance, especially in recent history.

For another term in Islam for a non-Muslim who is a monotheist believer (usually applied historically in a pre-Islamic context), see hanif.

See also

References

External links

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