Murray

Murray

[mur-ee, muhr-ee]
Gell-Mann, Murray, 1929-, American theoretical physicist, b. New York City, grad. Yale 1948, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1951. In 1953, he and the Japanese team of T. Nakano and Kazuhiko Nishijima independently proposed the concept of "strangeness" to account for certain particle-decay patterns; strangeness became the foundation for later symmetry studies. In 1961, Gell-Mann and Israeli physicist Yuval Ne'eman independently introduced the "eightfold way," or SU(3) symmetry, a tablelike ordering of all subatomic particles analogous to the ordering of the elements in the periodic table. The 1964 discovery of the omega-minus particle, which filled a gap in this ordering, brought the theory wide acceptance and led to Gell-Mann's being awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physics. In 1963, Gell-Mann and American physicist George Zweig independently postulated the existence of the quark, an even more fundamental elementary particle with a fractional electric charge; quarks are confined in protons, neutrons, and other particles by forces associated with the exchange of gluons. Gell-Mann and others later constructed the quantum field theory of quarks and gluons called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Gell-Mann's interests have extended to the study of complexity, and he is the director of physics at the Santa Fe Institute, which he helped found in 1984. He has written The Eightfold Way in collaboration with Ne'eman (1964), Broken Scale Invariance and the Light Cone with Kenneth G. Wilson (1971), and The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and Complex (1984).

See biography by G. Johnson (1999).

Murray, Alexander Stuart, 1841-1904, Scottish archaeologist. He was assistant keeper (1867-86) and keeper (from 1886) of Greek and Roman antiquities at the British Museum. From 1894 to 1896 he was in charge of excavations in Cyprus. Among his writings are Manual of Mythology (1873, rev. ed. 1935), Handbook of Greek Archaeology (1892), Terra-Cotta Sarcophagi (1898), and Excavations in Cyprus (1900).
Murray, Lord George, 1694-1760, Scottish general. He took part in the risings of the Jacobites in 1715, 1719, and 1745. Although he foresaw the hopelessness of the 1745 uprising, he was one of Charles Edward Stuart's ablest commanders in the rebellion, serving him in the victory of Prestonpans and in the retreat from the invasion of England. He opposed the strategy that led to the defeat at Culloden Moor (1746). After the battle, in which he commanded the right wing, he fled to Holland.

See biography by K. Tomasson (1958).

Murray, Gilbert (George Gilbert Aimé Murray), 1866-1957, British classical scholar, b. Sydney, Australia. In 1908 Murray was appointed regius professor of Greek at Oxford. He is best known as a Greek scholar and especially as a translator of Greek drama. His translations were rendered in heroic rhymes to preserve the rhythm of the originals. Among his works are History of Ancient Greek Literature (1897), The Rise of the Greek Epic (1907), Euripides and His Age (1918), The Classical Tradition in Poetry (1927), and Hellenism and the Modern World (1953). Murray was active in the cause of world peace. He was chairman (1923-38) of the League of Nations Union and first president of the general council of the United Nations Association. He wrote several books about international politics, including Liberality and Civilization (1938).

See J. Smith and A. Toynbee, ed., Gilbert Murray: An Unfinished Autobiography (1960).

Murray, Henry A., 1893-1988, American psychologist, b. New York City. Murray was trained in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, chemistry, and biology. He taught at Harvard (1927-62), and helped found the Boston Psychoanalytic Society. His theory of personality drew from both Freudian and Jungian psychoanalysis, to form a complex system of basic motivational forces. Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a projective test widely used by psychologists for assessing personality (see psychological tests).

See E. S. Shneidman, ed., Selections from the Personology of Henry A. Murray (1981).

Murray, James, 1721?-94, British general, first civil governor of Canada, b. Scotland. He went to Canada as an army officer in 1757 and was prominent at the siege of Louisburg (1758) and in the crucial battle on the Plains of Abraham. Murray was given command of Quebec and withstood the efforts of the French. He was made military governor of Quebec and after the Treaty of Paris (1763) became (1764) the first civil governor of Canada, then called the Province of Quebec. His efforts to protect the French Canadians prepared the way for the Quebec Act (1774) and earned him the enmity of many of the English. Summoned (1766) to England to face charges of betraying British interests, he was vindicated. Although he continued in the governorship until 1768, he did not return to Canada. He remained in the army and reached the rank of full general (1783).
Murray, Sir James Augustus Henry, 1837-1915, English lexicographer. In 1879 he assumed the editorship of the New English Dictionary (the Oxford English Dictionary), which was his life's work (see dictionary). Murray was a guiding force in this compilation, a triumph of modern scholarship, and its general plan and much of the work on details are to be credited to him.

See studies by K. M. E. Murray (1977) and S. Winchester (2003).

Murray or Moray, James Stuart, 1st earl of, 1531?-1570, Scottish nobleman. An illegitimate son of James V by a daughter of the earl of Mar, he was, therefore, half brother of Mary Queen of Scots. Early a Protestant sympathizer, he joined the lords of the congregation in 1559 and was a leader of the opposition to the regent, Mary of Guise. After the return to Scotland of the young queen Mary (1561), he was her adviser, always favoring friendship with England and advocating religious reform. He opposed Mary's marriage (1565) to Lord Darnley and, after an abortive rebellion, fled to England. He returned (1566) immediately after the murder of David Rizzio and was reconciled with Mary, who did not know that he had been involved in the murder conspiracy. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567, Murray was the only feasible candidate for regent. He made every effort to perpetuate Mary's incarceration and worked in the interests of the young king James VI, the English, and Protestantism. He was assassinated by a member of the Hamilton family. With John Knox, who wrote a panegyric on him, Murray was largely responsible for the success of the Scottish Reformation.

See biography by M. Lee (1953, repr. 1971).

Murray, John, 2d marquess and 1st duke of Atholl, 1660-1724, Scottish nobleman; son of the 2d earl and 1st marquess. A supporter of William III, he held high government posts in Scotland and was created duke in 1703. He successfully weathered a plot against him by Simon Fraser, Baron Lovat, and James Douglas, 2d duke of Queensberry. A vigorous opponent of the union (1707) of England and Scotland, he was suspected of Jacobite leanings. Nonetheless, he supported the accession (1714) of George I (although he lost office) and remained loyal to the government during the Jacobite uprising of 1715.
Murray, John, 2d earl and 1st marquess of Atholl, 1635?-1703, Scottish nobleman. After the Restoration he held high offices in Scotland and was created marquess in 1676. He lost royal favor temporarily when he urged (1678) moderation in the measures against the Covenanters but fought vigorously against Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of Argyll in 1685. He was lukewarm to the accession (1688) of William III and allowed his troops to be used at Killiecrankie against the supporters of the new king.
Murray, John, 1741-1815, founder of the Universalist denomination in America, b. England. He was excommunicated by the Methodists after he had openly accepted Universalism as taught by James Relly (see Universalist Church of America). Murray emigrated to America in 1770 where, after traveling as a Universalist preacher for four years in New Jersey, New York, and New England, he settled in Gloucester, Mass. He continued his preaching there and in nearby centers. In 1775, General Washington announced Murray's appointment as chaplain to the Rhode Island troops. He served as pastor of the newly organized Independent Church of Christ (1779) at Gloucester until he was called to the pastorate of the Universalist Society of Boston in 1793.
Murray, Joseph E., 1919-, American surgeon, b. Milford, Mass., M.D. Harvard, 1943. Trained as a plastic surgeon, Murray became interested in organ transplants, performing the first human kidney transplant in 1954 between two men who were identical twins. He continued to develop the process, creating new drugs that made it easier for nonrelatives to be donors. For his pioneering procedure he was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with E. Donnall Thomas. In later years Murray returned to plastic surgery, developing procedures to correct inborn facial defects in children.
Murray, Les (Leslie Allan Murray), 1938-, Australia's leading contemporary poet, grad. Univ. of Sydney (B.A., 1969). Son of an impoverished dairy farmer, he grew up in New South Wales, traveled widely, taught in various Australian universities, and settled near his family farm in 1988. His poetry explores the expansiveness of his native land—its aborigines, colonial settlement, rural and urban landscapes, animals, and the character and personalities of its bush and vast outback. It often exhibits sympathy with the underprivileged and distrust of elites. Frequently employing traditional forms, Murray's verse is accessible yet sophisticated, precisely descriptive, densely lyrical, alternately witty and deeply thoughtful, and often displays an edge of anger or discontent. Since his first book of poetry, The Ilex Tree (1965), he has published more than 20 collections, including Selected Poems: The Vernacular Republic (1976), Equanimities (1982), The Idyll Wheel (1989), Translations from the Natural World (1992), Subhuman Redneck Poems (1996), Conscious & Verbal (2000), and The Biplane Houses (2006). Murray has also written two verse novels, The Boys Who Stole the Funeral (1980) and the highly regarded Fredy Neptune (1998), and three essay collections (1979, 1984, 1990).

See biography by P. Alexander (2000); studies by P. Nelson (1978), L. Bourke (1992), L. Hergenhan and B. C. Ross, ed. (2001), S. Matthews (2001), and A. Smith, ed. (2002).

Murray, Lindley, 1745-1826, American grammarian, b. Pennsylvania. Murray practiced law until the Revolution, during which he acquired a fortune, and in 1784 went to live in England. A Quaker minister, he devoted his time to writing books on English grammar and religious essays. His most popular book was his English Grammar (1st ed. 1795), written for a Friends' school. It was the first standard English grammar and was tremendously popular.
Murray, Philip, 1886-1952, American labor leader, b. Blantyre, Scotland. He emigrated to the United States in 1902 and worked in the Pennsylvania coal mines. After he was discharged for fighting with a foreman, 600 miners struck, formed a local of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), and elected (1904) Murray local president. A skillful negotiator, he rose to the vice presidency of the union by 1920. When the CIO was formed (see American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations), he became a CIO vice president and headed (1936) its successful steel workers' organizing campaign. He broke with John L. Lewis, whom he succeeded as CIO president (1940). For supporting President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's reelection in 1940, Lewis forced Murray out of the UMW. (Lewis supported the Republican Wendell Willkie). However, Murray was elected president of the United Steel Workers of America in 1942 when that union was formed. Retaining the presidency of both the CIO and the United Steel Workers of America until his death, Murray was active in expelling (1949-50) Communist-dominated unions from the CIO.
Murray or Moray, Thomas Randolph, 1st earl of, d. 1332, Scottish nobleman; nephew of Robert I. He joined Robert's revolt against Edward I of England in 1306 but was captured at the battle of Methven and forced to swear fealty to the English king. Recaptured (1308) by Sir James de Douglas, he became one of Robert's strongest warriors and was created earl of Murray. In 1314 he captured Edinburgh Castle by a daring scaling operation and led a division at Bannockburn. He accompanied Edward Bruce on his invasion of Ireland in 1315 and, with Douglas, led many raids into England, including the one in 1327 in which the young Edward III was nearly captured. He was a principal party in the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Northampton (1328), by which Edward recognized Robert I. He was regent (1331-32) of Scotland for the young David II.
Murray. 1 City (1990 pop. 14,439), seat of Calloway co., SW Ky., near the Tenn. line; inc. 1844. There is light manufacturing. Tobacco and grain are grown, livestock and poultry are raised, and there is dairying. Murray is in a popular tourist and retirement area, near state parks and a recreational area operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Murray State Univ. is there.

2 City (1990 pop. 31,282), Salt Lake co., N central Utah; inc. 1903. It is a retail center with light manufacturing. There is dairying, and cattle and sheep are raised. The county fairgrounds are in Murray.

Murray, principal river of Australia, 1,609 mi (2,589 km) long, rising in the Australian Alps, SE New South Wales, and flowing westward to form the New South Wales-Victoria boundary. It then flows southwest across South Australia state through Lake Alexandrina, a lagoon, into the Indian Ocean. It receives its main tributary, the Darling River, at Wentworth. The Murray-Darling watercourse is 2,911 mi (4,685 km) long but is of little use for navigation except in the lower reaches. Used primarily for irrigation, the Murray has numerous hydroelectric plants and reservoirs, including Hume Reservoir. The Murray and the Murrumbidgee, a tributary, receive most of the diverted water from the Snowy Mts. Hydroelectric Scheme. The combined Murray-Darling basin supports more than 40% of Australia's agriculture.

(born Feb. 7, 1837, Denholm, Roxburghshire, Scot.—died July 26, 1915, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) Scottish lexicographer. He taught in a grammar school (1855–85). His Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873) and a major article on English for Encyclopædia Britannica (1878) established him as a leading philologist. He was hired by the Philological Society as editor of the vast New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, later called the Oxford English Dictionary, in 1879, and he applied himself to the work with legendary energy and resourcefulness. The first volume appeared in 1884, and by his death he had completed about half the dictionary.

Learn more about Murray, Sir James (Augustus Henry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , May 25, 1886, Blantyre, Lanark, Scot.—died Nov. 9, 1952, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. labour leader. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1902, he became a coal miner in Pennsylvania. He joined the United Mine Workers of America and rose through the ranks to serve as vice president (1920–42) under John L. Lewis. When Lewis became president of the newly formed Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1936, he delegated Murray to create an industry-wide steelworkers' union (see United Steelworkers of America). Murray succeeded Lewis as CIO president in 1940 and held the post until his death. Seealso AFL-CIO.

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(born April 2, 1862, Elizabeth, N.J., U.S.—died Dec. 7, 1947, New York, N.Y.) U.S. educator. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. He was the founding president of what is today Columbia's Teachers College (1886–91). As president of Columbia University itself (1901–45), he led the institution to world renown. Early in his career he criticized prevailing pedagogical methods, but later he turned on pedagogical reform itself, decrying vocationalism in education and behaviorism in psychology. A champion of international understanding, he helped establish the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910 and served as its president (1925–45). In 1931 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Jane Addams.

Learn more about Butler, Nicholas M(urray) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 7, 1837, Denholm, Roxburghshire, Scot.—died July 26, 1915, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) Scottish lexicographer. He taught in a grammar school (1855–85). His Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873) and a major article on English for Encyclopædia Britannica (1878) established him as a leading philologist. He was hired by the Philological Society as editor of the vast New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, later called the Oxford English Dictionary, in 1879, and he applied himself to the work with legendary energy and resourcefulness. The first volume appeared in 1884, and by his death he had completed about half the dictionary.

Learn more about Murray, Sir James (Augustus Henry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , May 25, 1886, Blantyre, Lanark, Scot.—died Nov. 9, 1952, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. labour leader. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1902, he became a coal miner in Pennsylvania. He joined the United Mine Workers of America and rose through the ranks to serve as vice president (1920–42) under John L. Lewis. When Lewis became president of the newly formed Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1936, he delegated Murray to create an industry-wide steelworkers' union (see United Steelworkers of America). Murray succeeded Lewis as CIO president in 1940 and held the post until his death. Seealso AFL-CIO.

Learn more about Murray, Philip with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 15, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. physicist. He entered Yale University at 15 and earned his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951. From 1955 he taught at the California Institute of Technology, becoming Millikan professor of theoretical physics in 1967. In 1953 he introduced the concept of “strangeness,” a quantum property that accounted for decay patterns of certain mesons. In 1961 he and Yuval Ne'eman (b. 1925) proposed a scheme (the “Eightfold Way”) that grouped mesons and baryons into multiplets of 1, 8, 10, or 27 members on the basis of various properties. He speculated that it was possible to explain certain properties of known particles in terms of even more fundamental particles, or building blocks, which he later called quarks. He was awarded a 1969 Nobel Prize.

Learn more about Gell-Mann, Murray with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 3, 1798, Fairfax county, Va., U.S.—died April 28, 1871, Alexandria, Va.) U.S. politician. A grandson of George Mason, he practiced law in his native Virginia from 1820. He served in the state legislature (1826, 1828–32), the U.S. House of Representatives (1837–39), and the U.S. Senate (1847–61). An advocate of secession, he resigned his Senate seat in 1861. Appointed Confederate commissioner to England, he was captured at sea with John Slidell aboard the Trent and imprisoned for two months (see Trent Affair). Released in 1862, he remained in England until 1865 but was unable to win support for the Confederate cause.

Learn more about Mason, James Murray with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 3, 1798, Fairfax county, Va., U.S.—died April 28, 1871, Alexandria, Va.) U.S. politician. A grandson of George Mason, he practiced law in his native Virginia from 1820. He served in the state legislature (1826, 1828–32), the U.S. House of Representatives (1837–39), and the U.S. Senate (1847–61). An advocate of secession, he resigned his Senate seat in 1861. Appointed Confederate commissioner to England, he was captured at sea with John Slidell aboard the Trent and imprisoned for two months (see Trent Affair). Released in 1862, he remained in England until 1865 but was unable to win support for the Confederate cause.

Learn more about Mason, James Murray with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Christopher Murray Grieve

(born Aug. 11, 1892, Langholm, Dumfriesshire, Scot.—died Sept. 9, 1978, Edinburgh) Scottish poet. In 1922 he founded the monthly Scottish Chapbook, in which he published his lyrics and sparked the Scottish literary renaissance. A radical leftist, he rejected English as a medium and scrutinized modern society in verse written in “synthetic Scots,” an amalgam of various dialects. A noted work is the extended rhapsody A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle (1926). He later returned to standard English in such volumes as A Kist of Whistles (1947) and In Memoriam James Joyce (1955). He is regarded as Scotland's preeminent poet of the early 20th century.

Learn more about MacDiarmid, Hugh with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 15, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. physicist. He entered Yale University at 15 and earned his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951. From 1955 he taught at the California Institute of Technology, becoming Millikan professor of theoretical physics in 1967. In 1953 he introduced the concept of “strangeness,” a quantum property that accounted for decay patterns of certain mesons. In 1961 he and Yuval Ne'eman (b. 1925) proposed a scheme (the “Eightfold Way”) that grouped mesons and baryons into multiplets of 1, 8, 10, or 27 members on the basis of various properties. He speculated that it was possible to explain certain properties of known particles in terms of even more fundamental particles, or building blocks, which he later called quarks. He was awarded a 1969 Nobel Prize.

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(born Oct. 4, 1879, Du Quoin, Ill., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1938, Boston, Mass.) U.S. plant geneticist, agronomist, and chemist. He finished high school at age 15 and received an M.S. in 1904. He was particularly interested in determining and controlling the protein and fat content of corn, both of which significantly influence its value as animal feed. His research, with that of George Harrison Shull, led to the development of modern-day hybrid corn. Commercial production of hybrid seed corn was made possible by the work of his student Donald F. Jones (1890–1963). East's work helped make possible studies in the field of population genetics.

Learn more about East, Edward Murray with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 4, 1879, Du Quoin, Ill., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1938, Boston, Mass.) U.S. plant geneticist, agronomist, and chemist. He finished high school at age 15 and received an M.S. in 1904. He was particularly interested in determining and controlling the protein and fat content of corn, both of which significantly influence its value as animal feed. His research, with that of George Harrison Shull, led to the development of modern-day hybrid corn. Commercial production of hybrid seed corn was made possible by the work of his student Donald F. Jones (1890–1963). East's work helped make possible studies in the field of population genetics.

Learn more about East, Edward Murray with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 2, 1862, Elizabeth, N.J., U.S.—died Dec. 7, 1947, New York, N.Y.) U.S. educator. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. He was the founding president of what is today Columbia's Teachers College (1886–91). As president of Columbia University itself (1901–45), he led the institution to world renown. Early in his career he criticized prevailing pedagogical methods, but later he turned on pedagogical reform itself, decrying vocationalism in education and behaviorism in psychology. A champion of international understanding, he helped establish the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910 and served as its president (1925–45). In 1931 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Jane Addams.

Learn more about Butler, Nicholas M(urray) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Murray-Sunset is the second largest national park in Victoria, Australia, 438 km northwest of Melbourne. It is in the northwestern corner of the state, bordering South Australia to the west and the Murray River to the north. The Sturt Highway passes through the northern part of the park, but most of the park is in the remote area between the Sturt Highway and the Mallee Highway, west of the Calder Highway.

The park was created in 1991, and expanded to encompass Pink Lakes State Park in 1999. The lakes are dubbed "pink" after the beta-carotene pigment that colours it in late summer, caused by the algae Dunaliella salina. This area was the site of a major salt industry from 1916 to 1975. At its peak, ten thousand tons of salt was harvested and railed from Lake Crosbie, Lake Becking and Lake Kenyon to the nearby town of Linga.

Another defunct railway, the Nowingi line, terminates at the remains of a gypsum mine hopper on the Raak Plain. Other historical relics include Shears Quarters and Mopoke Hut, built as grazier accommodation in the 1960s.

Flora and fauna

Over 600 species of plants have been recorded, and 300 species of birds in the rich mudflats. Major plants include Murray lily, silvery emu-bush, blue-leafed mallee, saltbush, buloke, porcupine grass, mallee eucalyptus. In spring, wildflowers include spider orchids, azure sun orchids, desert baekias, poached-egg daisys.

Emus, wedge-tailed eagles and both western grey kangaroos and red kangaroos are also present.

Walking

The park is attractive to bushwalkers as the nearest semi-arid region to Melbourne. Walks include circuits of Lake Crosbie and Lake Kenyon, and the three day Sunset walking track. Groundwater is scarce, and hikers generally rely on water tanks maintained by rangers.

See also

Sources

  • Take a walk in Victoria's national parks, John and Lyn Daly, 2005.
  • Victoria's Deserts 4WD Map, Meridian Publications, 2003.

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