See his later autobiography Afrika My Music (1984) and selected letters (1984); studies by U. A. Barnett (1976), T. Akosu (1995), and R. Obee (1999).
Mphahlele spent the following twenty years in exile: first in Nigeria, and subsequently in Kenya, where he was director of the Chemchemi Cultural Centre; Zambia; France and the United States, where he earned a doctoral degree from the University of Denver and taught at the University of Pennsylvania. Mphahlele returned to South Africa in 1977 and joined the faculty of the University of the Witwatersrand.
“Lately, Presence Africaine has, unfortunately been too preoccupied with anthropological creepy crawlies to denote enough attention to the problem of the artist in his present predicament. It worried me a lot that such a useful institution did not seem to be aware of cultural cross-currents that characterize artistic expression in multi-racial societies. They seem to think that the only culture worth exhibiting was traditional or indigenous. And so they concentrated on countries where interaction of streams of consciousness between black and white has not taken place to any significant or obvious degree, or doesn’t so much as touch the cultural subsoil. A number of these enthusiasts even became apologetic about the Western elements in their own art. So on my way back to Nigeria from Britain, in November 1959, I stopped in Paris to exchange ideas with the men of Presence Africaine. Where do we come in – we who are detribalized and are producing a proletarian art? This is what I wanted to know. Gerard Sekoto, the Pretoria painter accompanied me.”
What price Negritude? From “The African Image” London 1962
" ES'KIA" (2002) Publisher: Stainbank & Associates
"ES'KIA Continued" (2004) Publisher: Stainbank & Associates