Ahmad Shah Qajar
(احمد شاه قاجار in Persian
) (January 21
- 21 February
) was Shah
from July 16
, to October 31
and the last of the Qajar dynasty
Ahmad acceded to the Peacock Throne
on July 16
, following the overthrow of his father and predecessor, Mohammad Ali Shah
, who had attempted to reverse earlier constitutional restrictions on royal power. He was, however, an ineffective ruler who was faced with internal unrest and foreign intrusions, particularly by the British
and Russian Empires
. In 1917, Britain used Persia as the springboard for an attack into Russia
in an unsuccessful attempt to reverse the Russian Revolution of 1917
Ahmad Shah was pushed aside in a military coup in 1921 by Reza Pahlavi
and went into exile with his family in 1923. He was formally deposed on October 31
, when Reza Pahlavi was proclaimed Shah
by the Founders Assembly.
He refused to exceed his power limits as a constitutional monarch in order to save his dynasty. Moreover, he refused help from the Ottoman Sultanto restore him to the throne as he saw the offer as foreign interference in internal affairs of Persia.
He died in 1930 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, outside Paris, France. His brother, former crown prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza, assured the physical continuation of the dynasty through his descendants.