Monuments and Historic Sites of Zambia

Monuments and Historic Sites of Zambia

This page gives lists of the National Monuments and other historic sites of Zambia, with a one- or two-line description providing links to details given on other pages.

National Heritage Conservation Commission

The body responsible for cataloguing and protecting monuments and historic sites in Zambia is the National Heritage Conservation Commission (NHCC) which has its headquarters in Livingstone. According to ICOMOS (see references), the NHCC’s profile report which is not widely available, lists over 3000 heritage sites in Zambia, including:

  • historic/architectural/buildings (over 384 sites)
  • historic sites (over 180 sites)
  • anthropological sites (over 189 sites)
  • engineering industrial structures (over 62 sites)
  • archaeological sites (over 2000 sites)
  • geomorphological sites, geophysical sites, palaeontological, ecology and other sites.

However, only about 15% of the country’s land area has been adequately surveyed for cultural heritage and, due to a shortage of funds, the condition of most of the listed sites is not known.

Under the National Heritage Conservation Commission Act of 1989, Section 27, heritage sites can be declared as 'National Monuments' by the Minister, and they then become protected and regulated by the details of the Act. They are listed below, grouped under various headings for ease of reference (these are not headings used in the Act).

NHCC Declared National Monuments

Prehistoric monuments

  • Ayrshire Farm Rock Engravings, Lusaka
  • Chifubwa Stream Cave 6.4 km from Solwezi at 12°13' S 26°25' E.
  • Gwisho Hot Springs, Lochinvar National Park, Monze: Late Stone Age human skeletons from about 4,000 years ago.
  • Ing-ombe Ilede, Lusitu, is an archaeological site near the town of Siavonga, at 16°11' S 28°19' E.
  • Kalemba Rock Shelter, Chadiza District, with many rock paintings, at 14°7' S 32°30' E.
  • Kalundu Mound, Kalomo, site of a village from at least the ninth century until the twelfth century.
  • Kasamba Stream Grinding Grooves, Samfya — Iron Age site 1.6 km south of boma where axes and iron implements were sharpened, at 11°20' S 29°33' E.
  • Kundabwika Rock Painting — near Kundabwika Falls, 96 km north-west of Mporokoso at 9°13' S 29°19' E.
  • Leopard's Hill Cave, Lusaka District.
  • Libala Limestone, Lusaka next to Lusaka Primary School along Chilimbulu road.
  • Makwe Rock Shelter, Katete: Late Stone Age site which yielded many tools, (6000 years old) 3.2 km S of Kondwelani School, at 14°24' S, 31°56' E
  • Maramba Quarry Site, Livingstone — first stratified site of the Middle Pleistocene Hope Fountain Culture in Southern Africa, north side of town.
  • Mkomo Rock Shelter — Iron Age rock shelter and paintings, 64 km west of Chipata at 13°54' S 32°12' E.
  • Mumbwa Caves — in Central Province these caves contain burial sites and evidence of iron smelting and are the site of the Kaonde people's Musaka Jikubi Ceremony. 14°59' S 27°02' E.
  • Munwa Stream Rock Engravings — in Mwense district at 20°29' S 28°40' E.
  • Mwela Rock Paintings, Kasama, 4.8 km from centre, north of the Kasama-Isoka road at 10°10' S 31°13' E.
  • Nachikufu Cave, Mpika District — 18,000-year-old rock paintings in a cave at 12°15' S 31°10' E.
  • Nachitalo Hill, Mkushi District — rock art 55 km south of Ndola near Msofu mission at 13°32' S 28°59' E.
  • Nsalu Cave & Rock Painting, Serenje District — 12,000-year-old rock paintings 30 km north of Kanona at 12°40 ' S 30°45' E.
  • Nyambwezu Rock Shelter, Mwinilunga District, at Nyambwezu Falls, with paintings similar to Chifubwa Stream Cave, probably about 3,000 years old, at 12°00' 25°10' E.
  • Rocklands Farm Rock Paintings SE of Chipata, two groups of rock paintings on the west side of Katotola Kopje.
  • Sebanzi Hill, Lochinvar National Park, Monze: 2.7 km WSW of the ranch House, the site of a large Iron Age Village, apparently occupied by the ancestors of the Tonga tribe from about A.D. 1100.
  • Sutherland's Farm Site, Livingstone, including two former terraces of the Maramba River, the lower of which contains a home and workshop site of the Great Handaxe Culture.
  • Thandwe Rock Shelter, Chipata District, rock paintings, at 13°49' S 32°28' E
  • Twickenham Road Archaeological Site, Twickenham Road, Olympia Park, Lusaka.
  • Twin Rivers Kopje, 24 km south-west of Lusaka.
  • Victoria Falls Trust Area Archaeological Sites, Livingstone — 5.6 km west of town on north side of Sesheke road, Early to Later Stone Age sites which are the key for determining the Stone Age cultural sequence in the Upper Zambezi Valley
  • Zawi Hill Rock Paintings, 32 km north of Chipata near Kamukwe Village.

Monuments from the colonial era

Independence monuments

  • Bwacha House Number E1376, Musuku Road, Bwacha Township, Kabwe, where on 8th March, 1958 Dr K D Kuanda was elected President of the Zambia African National Congress.
  • Chilenje House 394, Lusaka occupied by Dr. K. D. Kaunda 1960-2.
  • Former House of Rt Hon. Prime Minister Robert Gabriel Mugabe of Zimbabwe at Chalimbana Teacher Training College, Lusaka.
  • Freedom House, Freedom Way, Lusaka, from where the United National Independence Party (UNIP) manifesto of 1962 was launched.
  • Kabompo House No. J11a Kabompo Township, Kabompo, to which Dr K. D. Kaunda was restricted by the Colonial authorities from March to July, 1959.
  • Lubwa House of Dr Kenneth David Kaunda in Chinsali District at 10°35' S 32°1' E, occupied from 1945 by the first President of the Republic of Zambia while he was headmaster of Lubwa Upper Primary School.
  • Matero House No. 3144, Monze Road, Matero Township, Lusaka.
  • Old Chilenje House Number 280, Luwembu Street, Old Chilenje, Lusaka, the first office of the Zambia African National Congress.

Other Historic monuments

  • Big Tree, Kabwe: a fig tree with a 50 m wide canopy on the east side of Broadway, which served as a meeting place on many occasions during the early years of the township's history. Visible on Google Earth at 14°26'37.8 S 28°26'32.9E.
  • Chichele Mofu Tree − a large Mofu mahogany tree in Chichele National Forest 13 km west of Ndola.
  • Dag Hammerskjold Memorial — where the then United Nations Secretary-General was killed in a plane crash on 18th September 1961, in the Ndola West Forest Reserve about 11 km west of Ndola at 12°58'32 S 28°31'13 E.
  • Football Heroes Burial Site, Independence Stadium, Lusaka, where 30 victims of the 1993 Gabon Air Disaster are buried including the 18 members of the Zambia national football team.
  • Ntembwe of Mwase Lundazi — an irregular earthwork bank and ditch which was a baKafula village until about 1850, in Lundazi at 12°24' S 33°22' E.
  • Old National Assembly, Lusaka: also known as the Old Secretariat and Legco, in Independence Avenue, Lusaka. Built 1932 and site of historic legislative events important to Zambia's history during colonial and post-independence times.
  • Slave Tree, Ndola − a large fig tree at Moffat Avenue and Livingstone Road, where slaves were bought and sold by Swahili slave traders.

Industrial monuments

  • Collier Monument — to prospector William Collier’s 1902 discovery of copper ore at the Roan Antelope Mine in Luanshya.
  • Lusaka Thermal Power Station, Great East Road, Lusaka.
  • Moir And Bell Monument: Mufulira Copper Mines, where the prospectors, J. Moir and G. Bell, discovered copper-bearing ore in 1923.
  • Zambezi Sawmills (Mulobezi) Railway Locomotive Sheds at Livingstone — c1920, now the site of the Livingstone Railway Museum.

Natural monuments

List of Other Historic Sites

These are not declared national monuments but are probably on the larger NHCC list of historic sites. It is an informal and incomplete list of sites — please add (with references if possible) even if you are unsure of their NHCC status.


General references

* Zambia Magazine online
* The Northern Rhodesia Journal online
* Zambia Horizon online David Phillipson: "Signposts to a Nation's Heritage", pp 1-4 (No date). Accessed 28 February 2007.

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