Montgomery

Montgomery

[mont-guhm-uh-ree, -guhm-ree]
Montgomery, Bernard Law, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, 1887-1976, British field marshal. Educated at Sandhurst, he entered the army in 1908 and served in World War I. In World War II he commanded (1939-40) the 3d Division in France until the evacuation of Dunkirk. In 1942 he was sent to Egypt to command the British 8th Army in Africa under the Middle Eastern Command headed by Gen. Sir Harold Alexander. Winning the battle of Alamein and driving the Germans 2,000 mi (3,200 km) across Africa into Tunisia (see North Africa, campaigns in) made Montgomery an idol of the British public. He led the 8th Army in Sicily and Italy until Dec., 1943. He helped formulate the invasion plan for France, and in the Normandy campaign he was field commander of all ground forces until Aug., 1944, then led the 21st Army Group. When the Germans advanced in the Battle of the Bulge, he was given temporary command of two American armies. Afterward his troops thrust across N Germany to the Baltic, and he headed (1945-46) the British occupation forces in Germany. He was made field marshal in 1944 and viscount in 1946. He was chief of the imperial general staff from 1946 to 1948, when he became chairman of the commanders in chief in committee under the permanent defense organization of Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. From 1951 to 1958 he was deputy supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe. His writings include Forward to Victory (1946), Normandy to the Baltic (1947), Forward from Victory (1948), El Alamein to the River Sangro (1948), An Approach to Sanity (1959), The Path to Leadership (1961), and A History of Warfare (1968).

See his memoirs (1958); biographies by A. Moorehead (1967) and by his brother, Brian Montgomery (1974); R. W. Thompson, The Montgomery Legend (1967) and Montgomery: The Field Marshall (1969); R. Lewin, Montgomery as Military Commander (1972); A. Horne with D. Montgomery, Monty (1994).

Montgomery, Gabriel, seigneur de Lorges, comte de, c.1530-1574, French soldier. Captain of the Scottish guards of King Henry II of France, he accidentally killed the king in a tournament in 1559. Disgraced at court, he retired first to Normandy, then to England, where he was converted to Protestantism. He returned to France and there fought (1562-70) with distinction on the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion. He returned again in 1574, but was captured and put to death. The name is also spelled Montgommery.
Montgomery, L. M. (Lucy Maud Montgomery), 1874-1942, Canadian novelist, b. Prince Edward Island. Her first novel, Anne of Green Gables (1908), met with immediate success and has been widely translated. Anne Shirley, the novel's heroine, is a spirited, witty young girl with red hair and a wild imagination. The novel's sequels include Anne of Avonlea (1909), Chronicles of Avonlea (1912), Anne of the Island (1915), and Anne's House of Dreams (1917). In all, she wrote 20 novels, nearly all of which are set in her native province, and some 500 short stories and poems.
Montgomery, Richard, 1738?-1775, American Revolutionary general, b. Swords, Co. Dublin, Ireland. After entering the British army, he was sent (1757) to Canada in the French and Indian Wars and saw action at Louisburg, Ticonderoga, and Montreal before participating in operations against Martinique and Havana (1762). In 1772, he sold his army commission and returned from Great Britain to America. He settled near New York City and married (1773) a daughter of Robert R. Livingston (1718-75). An opponent of British colonial policy, he was (1775) a member of the New York provincial congress. In the same year he became brigadier general in the Continental army and replaced Philip J. Schuyler as commander of the Montreal expedition in the ill-fated Quebec campaign. After taking Montreal, he joined Benedict Arnold and was killed (Dec. 31, 1775) in the assault on Quebec.
Montgomery, city (1990 pop. 187,106), state capital and seat of Montgomery co., E central Ala., near the head of navigation on the Alabama River just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, and in the rich Black Belt; inc. 1819. It is an industrial city and an important market center for lumber and agricultural goods, especially livestock and dairy products. There are stockyards and meatpacking plants. Manufactures include commercial fertilizer, furniture, air conditioning and heating units, automotive wiring, food items, textiles, and paper.

Montgomery became the state capital in 1847 and boomed as a river port and cotton market. The city has been called the "Cradle of the Confederacy." In the capitol building (erected 1857) the convention met (Feb., 1861) that formed the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president on the capitol steps, and the city served as the Confederate capital until the seat was moved to Richmond in May, 1861. The city was occupied by Union troops in the spring of 1865.

During the civil-rights movement in the 1950s and 60s, Montgomery was marked by demonstrations led by Martin Luther King, Jr., who was a minister there in the mid-1950s. In Dec., 1955, African Americans organized a nonviolent boycott of the segregated public bus system; by the following year a desegregation edict regarding public transportation was issued. Racial unrest ensued in the 1960s.

The city is the seat of Alabama State Univ., a campus of Auburn Univ., Southern Christian Univ., and Huntingdon College. Maxwell Air Force Base, adjoining the city on the northwest, and its Gunter Annex, on the northeast, are the home of Air Univ. In addition to the historic state capitol, points of interest in Montgomery include the "first White House of the Confederacy" (built c.1825), preserved as a Confederate museum; a planetarium; a museum of fine arts; the state archives and history museum; many antebellum homes and buildings; and the Civil Rights Memorial by Maya Lin.

Montgomery, town (1981 pop. 1,036), Powys, E Wales. Montgomery is locally important as a sheep and cattle market. Nearby Offa's Dyke is very well preserved.
Blair, Montgomery, 1813-83, U.S. Postmaster General (1861-64), b. Franklin co., Ky., son of Francis P. Blair (1791-1876). He resigned from the army in 1836 after serving against the Seminole and settled in St. Louis as the legal and political protégé of Senator Thomas H. Benton. A successful lawyer and mayor of St. Louis (1842-43), he moved to Washington, D.C., where he was the first U.S. solicitor in the Court of Claims and made many appearances before the U.S. Supreme Court, including one as counsel for Scott in the famous Dred Scott Case. His antislavery views brought him to the Republican party, and he became Postmaster General in the Lincoln cabinet. To appease the radicals in the cabinet, the President forced his resignation before the election of 1864. Opposed to radical Republicanism, he returned to the Democratic party and was one of Samuel J. Tilden's counsel in the disputed election of 1876.

See W. E. Smith, The Francis Preston Blair Family in Politics (1933); B. J. Hendrick, Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946).

(born Jan. 5, 1779, Lamberton, N.J., U.S.—died April 27, 1813, York, Ont.) U.S. explorer. He joined the army at age 15. In 1805 he led an expedition to find the headwaters of the Mississippi River, traveling 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from St. Louis to northern Minnesota, where he erroneously identified Leech Lake as the river's source. In 1806 he was sent to the Southwest to explore the Arkansas and Red rivers. Passing through Colorado, he tried unsuccessfully to climb the 14,110-ft (4,301-m) mountain later named Pikes Peak. His party continued into northern New Mexico (1807); his report on the Santa Fe region encouraged later expansion into the Southwest. In the War of 1812 he was killed in the attack on York (Toronto).

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(born Jan. 5, 1779, Lamberton, N.J., U.S.—died April 27, 1813, York, Ont.) U.S. explorer. He joined the army at age 15. In 1805 he led an expedition to find the headwaters of the Mississippi River, traveling 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from St. Louis to northern Minnesota, where he erroneously identified Leech Lake as the river's source. In 1806 he was sent to the Southwest to explore the Arkansas and Red rivers. Passing through Colorado, he tried unsuccessfully to climb the 14,110-ft (4,301-m) mountain later named Pikes Peak. His party continued into northern New Mexico (1807); his report on the Santa Fe region encouraged later expansion into the Southwest. In the War of 1812 he was killed in the attack on York (Toronto).

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City (pop., 2000: 201,568), capital of Alabama, U.S. The site was inhabited by Indian mound builders in prehistoric times. About 1717 the French built Fort Toulouse on the river above the present site of Montgomery. The city was founded in 1819 and named for Gen. Richard Montgomery; it became the state capital in 1846. In 1861, during the American Civil War, it served briefly as the capital of the Confederacy; it was captured by Union troops in 1865. It was a centre of the civil rights movement, notably the protests organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. Located southeast of Birmingham, it serves as the commercial centre of an agricultural region, trading in cotton and livestock and producing fertilizer. It is the seat of Alabama State University and several other institutions of higher education.

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Montgomery or Montgomerie may refer to:

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  • Sahiwal, formerly known as Montgomery

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