See J. Lancaster, The Lancasterian System of Education (1821) and The Practical Parts of Lancaster's Improvements and Bell's Experiments (ed. by D. Solmon, 1932); C. Kaestle, Joseph Lancaster and the Monitorial School Movement (1973).
The Monitorial System, although widely spread and with many advocates, fell into disfavour with David Stow's "Glasgow System" which advocated trained teachers with higher goals than those of monitors.
According to Gladman, to stimulate effort and reward merit, "Lancaster used Place Taking abundantly. He also had medals and badges of merit .. Tickets could be earned too; these had a trifling pecuniary value." Prizes were given "to excess" ceremonially.
Frequent changes of routine aided discipline. A code of command, and exact movements also reinforced discipline. Class lists and registers were kept.
Children were classified on a dual principle according to their ability in reading, and arithmetic.
Lancaster described his system as to produce a 'Christian Education' and "train children in the practise of such moral habits as are conducive to the welfare of society."
Bell declared "There is a faculty, inherent in the mind, of conveying and receiving mutual instruction." In 1796, John Frisken was 12 years and 8 months. With assistants, he was in charge of 91 boys.
The school was arranged in forms or classes, each consisting of about 36 members of similar proficiency, as classified by reading ability.
The young teachers were kept to task through registers. Reading, Ciphering and Religious rehearsals were tracked through the Paidometer register. Discipline held through a Black Book, which had entries read to the entire school, and faults were commented on in moral terms.
The hall was built in rectangles, with windows five feet from the floor, but opening at the top. Desks were placed against walls, and the Master's desk was raised, a practise that displeased Gladman, who remarked "Fixing the master thus, deprived him of much of his power; he would do more good in passing from class to class, and teaching."
Since 1968 in Sudbury model of democratic education schools all over the world, without references to the tradition of the Lancaster method, learning by teaching is broad implemented in all subjects, and since 1921 to some extent in Summerhill School. Sudbury model of democratic education schools generally accept children and teens, usually between ages 5–19. They do not segregate students by age, so that students of any age are free to interact with students in other age groups. One effect of this age mixing is that a great deal of the teaching in the school is done by students, thus implementing learning by teaching
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