Models of our universe

Graphical timeline of our universe

This more than twenty billion years timeline of our universe shows the best scientific estimates of the occurrence of events since its beginning, up until anticipated events in the near future. Zero of the scale is the present day. A large step on the scale is one billion years, a small step one hundred million years. The past time have a minus sign, e.g. the oldest rock on Earth was formed about four billion years ago and this is marked at -4e+09 years. The theoretical "Big Bang" event happened 13.7 billion years ago, see age of the Universe.

ImageSize = width:773 height:2000 PlotArea = left:60 right:60 bottom:45 top:45 AlignBars = early

Colors =

 id:period1  value:rgb(1,1,0.7) # light yellow
 id:period2  value:rgb(0.7,0.7,1) # light blue
 id:events   value:rgb(1,0.7,1) # light purple
 id:time1     Value:yellowgreen
 id:time2     value:lightorange
 id:elapse1     Value:coral
 id:elapse2     Value:lavender
 id:grayKindOf     Value:gray(0.93)
 id:WhiteDwarf      Value:rgb(0.92,0.92,1)
 id:phanerozoic value:rgb(0.7019,0.886,0.819)
 id:proterozoic value:rgb(0.8,0.85,0.568)
 id:archean   value:rgb(0.6,0.6784,0.6745)
 id:hadean value:rgb(0.4,0.4,0.4)
 id:precambrian value:rgb(0.9,0.9,0.9)
 id:cenozoic   value:rgb(1,1,0)
 id:mesozoic   value:rgb(0.5,0.6784,0.3176)
 id:paleozoic  value:rgb(0.5,0.7098,0.835)
 id:neoproterozoic    value:rgb(0.792,0.647,0.583)
 id:mesoproterozoic    value:rgb(0.867,0.761,0.533)
 id:paleoproterozoic    value:rgb(0.702,0.698,0.369)
 id:eoarchean    value:rgb(0.5,0.565,0.565)
 id:paleoarchean    value:rgb(0.6,0.592,0.569)
 id:mesoarchean    value:rgb(0.698,0.65,0.6)
 id:neoarchean    value:rgb(0.796,0.804,0.784)
 id:hadeanEra value:rgb(0.31,0.35,0.35)
 id:prenectarian   value:rgb(0.561,0.098,0.149)
 id:nectarian value:rgb(0.898,0.329,0.071)
 id:imbrian   value:rgb(0,0.481,0.811)
 id:earlyimbrian      value:rgb(0,0.404,0.741)
 id:lateimbrian    value:rgb(0,0.557,0.882)
 id:eratosthenian   value:rgb(0.655,0.839,0.027)
 id:copernican     value:rgb(1,0.961,0)
 id:sidericol value:rgb(1,0.4,0.3)
 id:theiicol value:rgb(1,0.2,0.5)
 id:phyllocol value:rgb(0.7,0.4,1)

Period = from:-13700000000 till:8000000000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1000000000 start:-13000000000 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:100000000 start:-13700000000

TextData =

 fontsize:M

  1. tabs:(210-left)

 pos:(10,1990)
 text:"Years from now"

LineData =

 layer:front
 at: 7500000000  frompos:60  tillpos:71  width:0.5  color:teal  # Helium flash
 points:(71,1910)(104,1832)  width:0.5  color:teal
 points:(104,1832)(115,1832)  width:0.5  color:teal
 at:          0  width:10  color:tan1  layer:back               # This present day
 at:-4670000000  frompos:60  tillpos:74  width:0.5  color:teal  # Giant planets formed
 points:(74,839)(104,811)  width:0.5  color:teal
 points:(104,811)(115,811)  width:0.5  color:teal
 at:-4730000000  frompos:60  tillpos:71  width:0.5  color:teal  # Ancient supernova
 points:(71,833)(104,795)  width:0.5  color:teal
 points:(104,795)(115,795)  width:0.5  color:teal

BarData =

 bar:Bar1
 bar:Dummy1
 bar:Dummy2
 bar:Dummy3
 bar:GalaxyBar
 bar:SunBar
 bar:LifeBar
 bar:SuperEonBar
 bar:EonBar
 bar:EraBar
 bar:LunarBar
 bar:MarsBar

PlotData=

 width:53  textcolor:black  fontsize:M

 bar:Bar1  mark:(line,teal)  color:events  align:left  shift:(40,-5)
 at:-13700000000  text:"Origin of our universe, Big Bang theory"  shift:(40,4)
 from:-13600000000 till:-13300000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Reionization, first stars began to shine"
 at:-13200000000  text:"Oldest star in Milky Way"
 at:-13100000000  text:"Formation of the first galaxies"  shift:(40,0)
 at:-10000000000  text:"Earliest  Population I stars"
 at: -4730000000  text:"Ancient supernova possibly~triggers formation of the Sun"  shift:(40,-44)  mark:(line,white)
 at: -4670000000  text:"Giant planets formed"  shift:(40,-32)  mark:(line,white)
 at: -4630000000  text:"Sun ignites hydrogen fusion~4.63 billion years ago (or 4.57)"  shift:(40,-4)
 at: -4570000000  text:"Formation of the Earth, 4.57 billion~years ago (or 4.54)"  mark:(line,white)  shift:(357,-12)
 at: -4400000000  text:"Zircon, oldest mineral"  shift:(40,-5)
 at: -4030000000  text:"Oldest rock~formation on Earth"
 from:-600000000  till:-500000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Evolution of multicellular life"
 at:  -220000000  text:"Evolution of mammals"
 at:           0  text:"Current_events"  mark:(line,tan1)  fontsize:L
 at:  1000000000  text:"Sun becomes too hot for life~on Earth's surface"
 at:  1900000000  text:"Earth's oceans have evaporated"
 at:  3500000000  text:"Sun has increased its~emitted power by 40%"
 at:  3600000000  text:"Moon Triton crashes into~its planet Neptune"  shift:(40,15)
 at:  5000000000  text:"Collosion risk~Earth - Mars - Mercury"
 at:  7500000000  text:"Sun ignites helium fusion,~starting with helium flash"  mark:(line,white)  shift:(40,-84)
 at:  7630000000  text:"Sun casts out its outer layers,~making a planetary nebula,~leaving the hot core in the~center, emitting 100 times~more power than Sun today"
 at:         end  text:"Sun has cooled down to the ~same power as today. It will ~continue cooling until it ~becomes a Black dwarf."  shift:(40,23)

 bar:GalaxyBar  mark:(line,white) align:center  shift:(0,0)  color:skyblue
 from:-10100000000  till:-6500000000  text:"Formation of the Milky Way galactic disk"
 from: -4670000000  till:-4570000000  text:"Formation of~Terrestrial planets"  shift:(-30,20)  align:left
 from: -4180000000  till:-4080000000  text:"Late Heavy~Bombardment, while~planet Neptune~migrates outwards~away from Sun"  shift:(-45,62) align:left
 from:  3000000000  till: 4000000000  text:"Milky Way and Andromeda~galaxies may collide and merge~[[Elliptical galaxy|to elliptical] one]]"  shift:(0,10)  align:left

 bar:SunBar  mark:(line,white) align:center  shift:(0,0)
 from:-4680000000  till:-4630000000  text:"Sun as Protostar"  shift:(3,-14)  color:claret  mark:(line,claret)
 from:-4630000000  till: 5400000000  text:"Sun as Main-sequence star"  color:yellow  shift:(0,20)
 from: 5400000000  till: 7500000000  text:"Sun as Red giant, emitting~2700 times more power than now.~Earth probably swallowed by Sun."  color:magenta  align:left  shift:(-70,0)
 from: 7500000000  till: 7600000000  text:"Sun as~Horizontal~branch star"  color:yelloworange  shift:(0,-18)
 from: 7600000000  till: 7630000000  text:"Sun as Asymptotic~giant branch star"  color:red  shift:(0,3)
 from: 7630000000  till: 8000000000  text:"Sun as White dwarf"  color:whiteDwarf  shift:(0,5)

 bar:LifeBar  align:center  shift:(0,0)
 at:-4570000000   mark:(line,teal)  text:"Water~delivered~to Earth]]"  shift:(0,16)
 from:-4400000000  till:-2700000000  text:"Emergence of~Life on Earth"  color:time1  shift:(0,30)
 from:-2700000000  till: 1000000000  text:"Life on Earth"  color:drabgreen
 from: 1000000000  till: 5400000000  text:"Measures are taken~to cope with the~heating sun.~Otherwise only:~ ~Shielded~Life on Earth?"   color:time1  shift:(0,-35)
 from: 5400000000  till:        end  text:"Life on Titan?"  color:time2  shift:(0,5)

 bar:SuperEonBar  color:yellow  align:center  shift:(0,0)
 from:-4570000000  till: -542000000  color:precambrian  text:"Precambrian"
 from: 1000000000  till: 5400000000  color:time2  shift:(0,0)  text:"Life on Mars?"
 from: 7500000000  till:  end  color:time1  shift:(0,10)  align:left  text:"Very Shielded ~Life on Mars?~if planet still exists"

  1. The click point of the links become misplaced (one inch to the left) when using align:right

 bar:EonBar  color:yellow  align:center  shift:(0,0)
 at: 350000000  shift:(30,0)  mark:(line,white)  fontsize:L  text:"Earth's geological time scale of"
 at: 150000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Eons:"
 from: -542000000 till:      0  color:phanerozoic  text:"Phanerozoic"
 from:-2500000000 till: -542000000  color:proterozoic  text:"Proterozoic"
 from:-3800000000 till:-2500000000  color:archean  text:"Archean"
 from:-4570000000 till:-3800000000  color:hadean  text:"Hadean"  shift:(0,5)

 bar:EraBar  color:blue  mark:(line,grayKindOf) align:left  shift:(0,0)
 at:150000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Eras:"
 from:  -65500000 till:0           color:cenozoic  text:"Cenozoic"
 from: -251000000 till:   -65500000  color:mesozoic  mark:(line,white)  text:"Mesozoic"
 from: -542000000 till:  -251000000  color:paleozoic  mark:(line,white)  text:"Paleozoic"
 from:-1000000000 till:  -542000000  text:Neoproterozoic color:neoproterozoic
 from:-1600000000 till: -1000000000  text:Mesoproterozoic color:mesoproterozoic
 from:-2500000000 till: -1600000000  text:Paleoproterozoic color:paleoproterozoic
 from:-2800000000 till: -2500000000  text:Neoarchean  color:neoarchean
 from:-3200000000 till: -2800000000  text:Mesoarchean  color:mesoarchean
 from:-3600000000 till: -3200000000  text:Paleoarchean  color:paleoarchean
 from:-3800000000 till: -3600000000  text:Eoarchean shift:(0,0)  color:eoarchean
 from:-3850000000 till: -3800000000  shift:(0,0)    color:earlyimbrian
 from:-3920000000 till: -3850000000  shift:(0,0)   color:nectarian
 from:-4150000000 till: -3920000000  text:"Basin Groups" shift:(0,-5) color:hadeanEra
 from:-4570000000 till: -4150000000  text:"Cryptic" shift:(0,0) color:hadeanEra

 bar:LunarBar  color:yellow  mark:(line,grayKindOf)  align:left  shift:(0,0)
 at:225000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Moon's:"
 from: -1100000000  till:   0  text:Copernican  color:copernican
 from: -3200000000  till: -1100000000  shift:(0,-18)  text:Eratosthenian  color:eratosthenian

  1. from:-3850000000 till: -3200000000 text:Imbrian color:imbrian

 from: -3800000000  till: -3200000000  shift:(0,-5)   text:"Upper Imbrian"  color:lateimbrian
 from: -3850000000  till: -3800000000  text:"Lower Imbrian" shift:(0,0)   color:earlyimbrian
 from:-3920000000   till: -3850000000  shift:(0,-5)  text:Nectarian  color:nectarian
 from: -4570000000  till: -3920000000  text:Pre-Nectarian      color:prenectarian

 bar:MarsBar  color:yellow  mark:(line,grayKindOf)  align:left  shift:(0,0)
 at: 6000000000  align:center text:"ZOOM  OUT~The Stelliferous Era"  mark:(line,white)
 at:225000000  mark:(line,white)  text:"Mars':"
 from: -3500000000  till:           0  text:Siderikan shift:(0,0)   color:sidericol
 from: -4000000000  till: -3500000000  text:Theiikian  color:theiicol  shift:(0,5)
 from: -4570000000  till: -4000000000  text:Phyllocian    color:phyllocol  shift:(0,-9)
 at:-13700000000  align:center color:time1  mark:(line,white) shift:(0,2) text:"The Primordial Era~PREVIOUS"

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