Miniaturization is the creation of ever-smaller scales for mechanical, optical, and electronic products and devices. Miniaturization is a continuing trend in the production of technology.
The human race has the tendency towards building and manufacturing smaller-scale products due to the desire for size efficiency. Items which take up less space are more desired than items which are bigger and bulkier because they are easier to carry, easier to store, and much more convenient to use.
Some projects in the 1950s that seemed to have no economic significance were actually borrowed, and justified, from the ideas of the space research program. Conventional industries made useful these commercially beneficial ideas and put them to good use. Products used in the construction of rockets, satellites, guidance and telemetrical systems, space stations must be light, yet rugged. With the ability to withstand wide variation in temperature, pressure, and stress. Technological research in this subject led to the development of new types of rubber resistant to extremes of hot and cold, new alloys notable for their lightness and toughness, ceramics that are unbreakable, and plastics, which neither melt nor decompose with the application of extreme heat. One of the most important ideas derived from space technology is miniaturization which led to microminiaturization and subminiaturization.
In electronics, miniaturization was witnessed by an empirical observation called Moore's Law that predicted that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit for minimum component cost doubles every 24 months.
Miniaturization is also a theme of science fiction. Besides referring to redesigning products to make smaller ones, miniaturization in science fiction also refers to shrinking objects and people.