Fortes, Meyer, 1906-83, British anthropologist, b. Britstown, South Africa, grad. Univ. of Cape Town (M.A., 1926) and the Univ. of London (Ph.D., 1930). From 1946 to 1950 he was a reader in social anthropology at Oxford, and from 1950 to 1973 he was William Wyse professor of social anthropology at Cambridge. An ethnologist, he specialized in African social structures. Among his writings are Oedipus and Job in West African Religion (1959), Kinship and the Social Order (1969), Time and Social Structure and Other Essays (1970), and Rules and the Emergence of Society (1983).
Schapiro, Meyer, 1904-96, American art historian, b. Siauliai, Lithuania. Schapiro came to the United States in 1907 and later attended Columbia Univ., where he began teaching in 1928, received a Ph.D. in 1929, and became a full professor in 1952. He also taught at New York Univ. (1932-36) and the New School for Social Research (1936-52), where his lectures were particularly influential on many artists and writers. In his earliest work Schapiro made pioneering investigations into the nature and aesthetics of Romanesque sculpture, and he gained prominence in the 1930s as a critic and champion of modern art. He also contributed scholarship of the highest order in the areas of early Christian, medieval, 19th-century, and modern art, exploring such areas as the history of style and the relationship of art to folk art traditions, to sociology, anthropology, psychoanalysis, and other disciplines.

Schapiro's earlier essays include "The Nature of Abstract Art" (1937), "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art" (1948), and "Leonardo and Freud" (1956). Among his most important books are studies on Van Gogh (1950) and Cézanne (1952) and four major essay collections: Romanesque Art (1977), Modern Art: 19th and 20th Centuries (2 vol., 1978-79), Late Antique, Early Christian and Mediaeval Art (1979), and Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist and Society (1994).

Meyer, Adolf, 1866-1950, American neurologist and psychiatrist, b. Switzerland, M.D. Zürich, 1892. He emigrated to the United States in 1892 and was professor of psychiatry at Cornell (1904-9) and at Johns Hopkins (1910-41), where he was also director of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic. He was active in the mental hygiene movement from its inception (1908), initiating the term "mental hygiene" to describe the maintenance of mental stability. His integrative system of treating mental illness, called psychobiology, demanded that each problem be considered in the light of the patient's total personality.

See his collected papers, ed. by E. E. Winters (4 vol., 1950-52).

Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand, 1825-98, Swiss poet and novelist. He studied history and art and later turned to literature. He is best known for his historical novellas, which are marked by a feeling for the spirit of past ages, keen psychological insight, and deep concern for ethical problems. Among these works are Das Amulett (1873), Jürg Jenatsch (1876), Der Heilige (1880; tr. Thomas à Becket the Saint, 1885), and Die Hochzeit des Mönchs (1884; tr. The Monk's Wedding, 1887). Meyer's verse, like his prose, dealt mainly with Renaissance themes, but its underlying symbolism made it a link between classical and impressionistic poetry.

See translations by G. F. Folkers (2 vol., 1976); studies by H. Henel (1954) and T. Lanne (1983).

Meyer, Eugene, 1875-1959, American financier and newspaper publisher, b. Los Angeles. He was a successful broker and a director of many corporations. In 1917 he was appointed to guide American war production and finance, serving in many government agencies. He was director of the War Finance Corp. from 1918 to 1920 and from 1921 to 1925. After organizing the Reconstruction Finance Corp. (1931), he became its first chairman. In 1946 he was appointed first president of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). Meyer bought the Washington Post in 1933 and made it one of the country's most influential newspapers. In 1954 it absorbed the Times-Herald. Succeeded as publisher in 1946 by his son-in-law, Philip L. Graham, Meyer remained board chairman until his death. Katharine Meyer Graham, his daughter, became publisher after her husband's suicide (1963).
Meyer, Gustav: see Meyrink, Gustav.
Meyer, Hannes, 1889-1954, Swiss architect. Meyer was a lecturer and studio master at the Bauhaus in Dessau. He succeeded Gropius as its director (1928-30). Meyer is noted for his rejection of the concept of individual design in favor of designs produced by the collaboration of architects. He worked in Germany, Switzerland, Mexico, and the USSR. One of his best-known designs is the German Trades Union School at Bernau (1928-30).
Meyer, Julius Lothar, 1830-95, German chemist. He taught at Breslau, Karlsruhe, and Tübingen (from 1876) and is known especially for his work in the development of the periodic law, for which, with Mendeleev, he received the Davy medal in 1882. He evolved the atomic volume curve (1869), which represented graphically the relation between the atomic weights and the atomic volumes of the elements.
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