Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods are represented. The earliest known settlement at the site is from the Neolithic showing evidence of contact and influence with the Troy I littoral culture. An as yet undeciphered seal written in hieroglyphics similar to those of the Hittites has been found in the acropolis of Metropolis. The Hittite kingdom of Arzawa had its capital Apasas (later Ephesus) some 30 km to the south west. Metropolis was a part of the Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamum and during this period the city reached a zenith of cultural and economic life. A temple dedicated to the war god Ares, one of only two known such temples, has been located here.
What is visible today is primarily a Hellenistic city heavily Romanised, and with Byzantine remains laid across it – a church to the east of the city, and fortification walls laid across city that connect to the Hellenistic defenses on the Acropolis