(born Jan. 9, 1803, Nayhingen, Württemberg—died March 7, 1888, Charleston, S.C., U.S.) German-born U.S. public official. He immigrated to the U.S. in his teens and became a successful lawyer in Charleston, S.C. After South Carolina seceded from the Union (1860), he helped draft the provisional constitution of the Confederacy and was appointed its secretary of the treasury (1861–64). To raise money, he issued increasing amounts of paper currency, which depreciated greatly by 1863. Held responsible for the collapse of Confederate credit, he resigned in 1864. After receiving a presidential pardon, he returned to the practice of law.
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President pro tempore