Melvin

Melvin

[mel-vin]
Schwartz, Melvin, 1932-2006 American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Columbia, 1959. He was a professor at Columbia (1959-66) and Stanford (1966-79). Schwartz established and ran his own software development business, Digital Pathways, between 1979 and 1991, when he joined Brookhaven National Laboratory as a researcher. He retired in 1997. Schwartz was awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics with Leon Lederman and Jack Steinberger for their development of the neutrino beam method in the 1960s and their use of the method to make discoveries about elementary particle physics. The researchers used the high-energy neutrinos to study the weak interaction, or force—one of the four fundamental forces of nature and the most difficult to observe—and in doing so confirmed the existence of two types of neutrinos, the electron neutrino and the previously unknown muon neutrino. This led to the development of a new scheme for classifying families of subatomic particles.
Calvin, Melvin, 1911-97, American organic chemist and educator, b. St. Paul, Minn., grad. Michigan College of Mining and Technology, 1931, Ph.D. Univ. of Minnesota, 1935. In 1937 he joined the faculty at the Univ. of California, where he became director (1946) of the bioorganic division of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (which became the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics in 1960) and professor (1947) of chemistry. For his work in determining the chemical reactions that occur when a plant assimilates carbon dioxide, Calvin was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His writings include The Photosynthesis of Carbon Compounds (with J. A. Bassham, 1962) and Chemical Evolution (1969).

(born April 8, 1911, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.—died Jan. 8, 1997, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. He developed a system of using the radioactive isotope carbon-14 as a tracer element in his studies of the green alga chlorella. By halting the plant's metabolism at various stages and measuring tiny amounts of radioactive compounds present, Calvin was able to identify most of the reactions involved in the intermediate steps of photosynthesis, for which he was awarded a 1961 Nobel Prize. His research also included work in radiation chemistry and the processes leading to the origin of life.

Learn more about Calvin, Melvin with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 8, 1911, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.—died Jan. 8, 1997, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. He developed a system of using the radioactive isotope carbon-14 as a tracer element in his studies of the green alga chlorella. By halting the plant's metabolism at various stages and measuring tiny amounts of radioactive compounds present, Calvin was able to identify most of the reactions involved in the intermediate steps of photosynthesis, for which he was awarded a 1961 Nobel Prize. His research also included work in radiation chemistry and the processes leading to the origin of life.

Learn more about Calvin, Melvin with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Melvin is a village in Ford County, Illinois, United States. The population was 465 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Melvin is located at (40.569480, -88.248880).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.9 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 465 people, 192 households, and 132 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,372.2 people per square mile (528.1/km²). There were 218 housing units at an average density of 643.3/sq mi (247.6/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 99.57% White, 0.22% Native American, and 0.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.72% of the population.

There were 192 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.3% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the village the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $37,500, and the median income for a family was $47,500. Males had a median income of $31,938 versus $21,250 for females. The per capita income for the village was $16,383. About 4.8% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 16.1% of those age 65 or over.

Notable residents

References

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