Puerto Rico has a total of 30 airports around the island, including one in each of the smaller inhabited islands (Vieques and Culebra). The main airport is Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, and consists of two runways and three concourses. It is by far the busiest airport in Puerto Rico, with direct connections to most major cities in the eastern part of the United States, in Latin America, the Caribbean and a direct connection to Madrid, Spain.
Puerto Rico's next largest airports are usually former U.S. Air Force bases converted to public airports. Most of the airports in Puerto Rico are used exclusively for private planes and for limited passenger travel to local destinations within Puerto Rico and the Caribbean.
Strictly construed, the Jones Act refers only to Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (46 U.S.C. 883; 19 CFR 4.80 and 4.80(b)), which has come to bear the name of its original sponsor, Sen. Wesley L. Jones. Another law that was enacted in 1886 requires essentially the same standards for the transport of passengers between U.S. points, directly or indirectly transported through foreign ports or foreign points (46 App. U.S.C. 289; 19 CFR 4.80(a)). However, since the mid-1980s, as part of a joint effort between the cruise-ship industry that serves Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican politicians such as then Resident Commissioner, U.S. non-voting Representative Baltasar Corrada del Río, obtained a limited-exception since no U.S. cruise ships that were Jones Act-eligible were participating in said market.
The application of these coastwise shipping laws and their imposition on Puerto Rico consist in a serious restriction of free trade and have been under scrutiny and controversy due to the apparent contradictory rhetoric involving the United States Government's sponsorship of free trade policies around the world, while its own national shipping policy (Cabotage Law) is essentially mercantilist and based on notions foreign to free-trade principles.
There are several private marinas in Puerto Rico for boats and yachts, the largest being Puerto del Rey in Fajardo and Club Nautico de Ponce in Ponce.
Port of Ponce Railroad - is a very small and short railroad system located in Ponce mainly to assist in loading and unloading cargo ships. It is very rarely seen in operations, although this may change in the future (see Major Ports below).
Tourism Railroads - Several locomotives are used for tourism and recreational services, such as “El Parque del Tren” in Bayamón (demolished to make way for the Tren Urbano) and the historic narrow gage old sugarcane plantation “Tren del Sur” in Arroyo (currently abandoned but with plans for restoration).
However, when Puerto Rico changed its mostly agricultural economy to an industrialized one, and the U.S. and Puerto Rican governments started investing heavily in interstate highways and freeways, the railroad business soon collapsed. Passenger travel ceased in 1953, while the commercial train system (mostly for the sugar cane industry) continued operating until 1957.
Puerto Rico has an extensive system of roads, highways, and expressways, totaling more than 8,950 miles (14,400 km, 1999 est.) of paved road. Some of the major roads, highways, and freeways are:
PR-1 - Original main road between San Juan and Ponce before the completion of PR-52. It is now mostly used by people living nearby and as a scenic route. PR-2 - Main freeway/highway/avenue between Ponce, Mayagüez, Aguadilla, and Arecibo. Original main road between Arecibo and San Juan before completion of PR-22 (currently undergoing a conversion to a freeway between Ponce and Mayagüez). PR-3 - (65th Infantry Avenue) Original main road/avenue between Salinas, Guayama, Humacao, Fajardo and San Juan (before completion of PR-52, PR-53, PR-66, and PR-26). PR-10 - Main highway between Ponce, Adjuntas, Utuado and Arecibo (currently under construction: sections from Ponce to Adjuntas and Utuado to Arecibo are complete and open; while section between Adjuntas and Utuado under construction, with detour through PR-123). PR-22 - Main freeway between San Juan and Hatillo (plans are under way to extend freeway to Aguadilla). PR-52 (Las Américas Expressway and/or Luis A. Ferré Expressway) - Main freeway between San Juan and Ponce.It's one of the busiest freeways in the World. PR-53 - Main freeway between Salinas, Guayama, Yabucoa, Humacao and Fajardo (currently under construction: section between Salinas and Guayama and Humacao to Fajardo are complete and open; while section between Guayama, Yabucoa and Humacao are currently under construction). PR-66 - Main freeway between Canóvanas, Carolina, and San Juan (plans are under way to extend freeway to Rio Grande).
Transportation in Puerto Rico is heavily dependent on automobile transportation. Nevertheless, the government has increased investment in public transportation in an attempt to decrease vehicle dependency and road congestion. The island's metro area is serviced with three major public transportation systems:
Most cities and towns also have a Jitney-type taxi system locally called Carros Públicos. Each town has a central taxi terminal usually within walking distance of the town's central plaza where taxis are stationed, and they provide transportation through local and islandwide routes.