Maurice Utrillo

Maurice Utrillo

[yoo-tril-oh, oo-tril-oh; Fr. y-tree-yaw]
Utrillo, Maurice, 1883-1955, French painter. He was the son of the painter Suzanne Valadon and was adopted by the writer Miguel Utrillo. His mother taught him to paint in order to divert him from the alcoholism that ravaged him from a very early age. Utrillo's favorite themes were the street scenes of Paris, particularly of Montmartre, and Montmagny. Within an almost hallucinatory vision, he developed a personal style based on a modified cubism and a fine sense of atmosphere and composition. In his later years he lost much of his original power. An extremely prolific painter, Utrillo is well represented in American and European collections.

See biographies by W. George (1960) and P. de Polnay (rev. ed. 1969).

Impasse Cottin, oil on cardboard by Maurice Utrillo, circa 1910; in elipsis

(born Dec. 25, 1883, Paris, Fr.—died Nov. 5, 1955, Le Vésinet) French painter. When he became an alcoholic in his teens, his mother, the painter and model Suzanne Valadon, encouraged him to take up painting as therapy; it soon became his obsession. He had no formal artistic training and was interested primarily in reproducing what he saw as faithfully as possible. Most of his compositions depict the old, deteriorating houses and streets of the Montmartre district of Paris. His best work is that of his “white period” (circa 1908–14), so called for his lavish use of zinc white in heavy layers to build up aging, cracked walls.

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Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, (26 December 1883 - 5 November 1955) was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes. Born in the Montmartre quarter of Paris, France, Utrillo is one of the few famous painters of Montmartre who were born there.

Biography

Utrillo was the son of the artist Suzanne Valadon (born Marie-Clémentine Valadon), who was then an eighteen-year-old artist's model. She never revealed who had been the father of her child; speculation exists that he was the offspring from a liaison with an equally young amateur painter named Boissy, or with the well established painter, Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes, or even with Renoir (see below under Utrillo's Paternity). In 1891 a Spanish artist, Miguel Utrillo y Molins, signed a legal document acknowledging paternity, although the question remains as to whether he was in fact the child's father.

Valadon, who had become a model after a fall from a trapeze ended her chosen career as a circus acrobat, found that posing for Berthe Morisot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and others provided her with an opportunity to study their techniques. She taught herself to paint, and when Toulouse-Lautrec introduced her to Edgar Degas, he became her mentor. Eventually she became a peer of the artists she had posed for. In some cases, she had even become their mistress.

Meanwhile, her mother was left in charge of raising the young Maurice, who soon showed a troubling inclination toward truancy and alcoholism. When a mental illness took hold of the twenty-one year old Utrillo in 1904, he was encouraged to paint by his mother. He soon showed real artistic talent. With no training beyond what his mother taught him, he drew and painted what he saw in Montmartre. After 1910 his work attracted critical attention, and by 1920 he had become a legendary figure, whose paintings were known internationally. In 1928, the French government awarded him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. Throughout his life, however, his mental disorder would result in his being interned in mental asylums repeatedly.

Today, tourists to the area will find many of his paintings on post cards, one of which is his very popular 1936 painting entitled, Montmartre Street Corner or Lapin Agile.

In middle age Utrillo became fervently religious and in 1935, at the age of fifty-two, he married Lucie Valore and moved to Le Vesinet, just outside of Paris. By that time, he was too ill to work in the open air and painted landscapes viewed from windows, from post cards, and from memory.

Although his life also was plagued by alcoholism, he lived into his seventies. Maurice Utrillo died on 5 November 1955, and was buried in the Cimetière Saint-Vincent in Montmartre.

He is one of the most forged painters in history. His early works may fetch auction prices close to US$1 million.

Concerning Utrillo's Paternity

An anecdote concerning Utrillo's paternity is related in the unpublished memoirs of one of his American collectors, Ruth Bakwin:

"After Maurice was born to Suzanne Valadon, she went to Renoir, for whom she had modeled nine months previously. Renoir looked at the baby and said, 'He can't be mine, the color is terrible!' Next she went to Degas, for whom she had also modeled. He said, 'He can't be mine, the form is terrible!' At a cafe, Valadon saw an artist she knew named Miguel Utrillo, to whom she spilled her woes. The man told her to call the baby Utrillo: 'I would be glad to put my name to the work of either Renoir or Degas!'

Notes

References

  • Jean Fabris, Claude Wiart, Alain Buquet, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Jacques Birr, Catherine Banlin-Lacroix, Joseph Foret: Utrillo, sa vie, son oeuvre (Utrillo, his life, his works), Editions Frédéric Birr, Paris, 1982.
  • Warnod, Jeanine (1981). Suzanne Valadon. New York: Crown. ISBN 0-517-54499-7

External links

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