[mahrl-bur-oh, -buhr-oh or, for 1, -bruh, mawl-]
Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st duke of, 1650-1722, English general and statesman, one of the greatest military commanders of history. A great strategist and a shrewd diplomat, he has been criticized for inordinate love of wealth and power and for inconstant loyalties in politics.

Under James II and William III

The son of an impoverished squire, he became (1665) a page of the duke of York (later James II) and entered (1667) the army. He rose rapidly under York's patronage and c.1678 married Sarah Jennings (see Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, duchess of), attendant and friend of Princess (later Queen) Anne. Under James II he was active in crushing the rebellion (1685) of the duke of Monmouth and was raised to the peerage and made a major general.

Nevertheless, fearing the religious policies of the Roman Catholic king, and concerned about his own career, he corresponded with William of Orange (later William III) and supported him against James in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was created earl of Marlborough at William's coronation (1689). Marlborough was successful as a military commander in 1689 and 1690, but William's poor treatment of Anne offended him, and William began to resent Marlborough's ambition and ability. When Marlborough began secret communication with the exiled James II, he was discovered and lost royal favor (1692-98).

Power and Dismissal under Anne

In 1702, when Anne ascended the throne, Marlborough reached the fullness of his power. His military genius and remarkable gift for foreign diplomacy were given wide scope in the War of the Spanish Succession. His personal efforts long held together the anti-French alliance. He and Prince Eugene of Savoy together won such victories as Blenheim (1704), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709), and he alone is credited with Ramillies (1706) and countless other triumphs.

Marlborough, made a duke in 1702, also enjoyed political ascendancy, largely as a result of his wife's influence over the queen. Marlborough and his friend Sidney Godolphin, as well as the queen, although earlier bound by personal and religious ties to the Tories, turned to the Whigs, who favored the war while the Tories opposed it. They secured the dismissal of Robert Harley in 1708 and were momentarily paramount in politics. The duchess, however, quarreled with Anne, who came under the influence of Abigail Masham, Harley's cousin; the war was costly, and Marlborough was accused of prolonging it for his personal glory; the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell was unpopular; and in 1710 the Whigs fell, yielding power to Harley and Henry St. John (later Viscount Bolingbroke).

The duke was falsely charged with misappropriating public funds and was dismissed (1711) from office. He returned to England from self-imposed exile upon the accession of George I in 1714 and was given chief command of the army again, but he took little further part in public affairs.


See the duke's letters and dispatches (ed. by Sir George Murray, 1845); the exhaustive biography of him by his descendant Winston S. Churchill (1933-38, repr. 1982) and a short one by M. P. Ashley (1939, repr. 1957); studies by C. T. Atkinson (1921), F. Taylor (1921), I. F. Burton (1968), D. G. Chandler (1973), and D. W. Jones (1988).

Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, duchess of, 1660-1744, confidante of Queen Anne of England. Born Sarah Jennings, she was a childhood friend of Princess Anne. In 1677 she married John Churchill, later 1st duke of Marlborough. On Anne's marriage (1683) she was appointed lady of the bedchamber and became a close confidante. Although temporarily out of favor (1692-94) owing to the political disgrace of her husband, Sarah maintained a close relationship with Anne (who succeeded to the throne in 1702) until 1705, when they began to quarrel over Whig cabinet appointments. Until then Sarah had wielded considerable influence at court, but gradually Abigail Masham, a kinswoman both of Sarah herself and of the Tory leader Robert Harley, replaced her in Anne's affections. Finally dismissed in 1711, she and her husband went abroad in 1713. After the death (1722) of the duke of Marlborough, the duchess supervised completion of the building of Blenheim Palace, quarreling bitterly with its architect, Sir John Vanbrugh, and with most of her relatives.
Marlborough is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. It contains the census-designated place (CDP) of Terramuggus. The population was 5,709 at the 2000 census.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.4 square miles (60.7 km²), of which, 23.3 square miles (60.3 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.4 km²) of it (0.64%) is water. Marlborough is adjacent to four other Connecticut towns (Glastonbury to the north, East Hampton to the west, Colchester to the south, and Hebron to the east); East Hampton, Colchester, and Hebron are each in different counties from each other and from Marlborough.


As of the census of 2000, there were 5,709 people, 2,005 households, and 1,626 families residing in the town. The population density was 245.2 people per square mile (94.7/km²). There were 2,057 housing units at an average density of 88.4/sq mi (34.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.51% White, 0.77% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.26% from other races, and 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.05% of the population.

There were 2,005 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.8% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.9% were non-families. 13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the town the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 29.9% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $80,265, and the median income for a family was $90,346. Males had a median income of $53,789 versus $41,959 for females. The per capita income for the town was $35,605. About 1.0% of families and 2.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.


The beginnings of the town can be traced back the opening of Sadler's Ordinary in 1648 -- which is still in business today. Marlborough was incorporated in 1803 with land from three neighboring towns: Glastonbury, Colchester & Hebron.


Although the town is small it is conveniently surrounded by many larger communities and is just minutes away from a Stop and Shop, Shaws, Blockbuster, Mall(s). Several cities are 10 to 20 minutes away. Despite its small size the town has several small communities. The town's elementary school, Elmer-Thienes, was recently renovated. In the fall the Hebron Harvest Fair is right down route 85.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 25, 2005
Party Active Voters Inactive Voters Total Voters Percentage Democratic 1,139 10 1,149 28.11% Republican 1,008 21 1,029 25.17% Unaffiliated 1,876 32 1,908 46.67% Minor Parties 2 0 2 0.05%
Total 4,025 63 4,088 100%


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