Definitions

Margaret "Hot Lips" Houlihan

Smith, Margaret Chase

orig. Margaret Madeline Chase

(born Dec. 14, 1897, Skowhegan, Maine, U.S.—died May 29, 1995, Skowhegan) U.S. politician. She served as secretary to her husband, Clyde Smith, after he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1936. When he suffered a heart attack in 1940, he urged voters to elect her to the office. She became the first woman to win election to both the House (1940–49) and the Senate (1949–73). Though a staunch anticommunist, she was the first Republican senator to condemn the tactics of Joseph McCarthy, delivering a memorable “Declaration of Conscience” speech on the Senate floor in 1950. Her opinion that Pres. John F. Kennedy should use nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union prompted Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev to dub her “the devil in disguise of a woman.” She retired from politics after her defeat in 1972. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.

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(born circa 1045, probably Hungary—died Nov. 16, 1093, Edinburgh; canonized 1250; feast day November 16, Scottish feast day June 16) Patron saint of Scotland. Sister of Edgar the Aetheling, she married Malcolm III Canmore, and three of their sons succeeded to Scotland's throne. She founded abbeys, worked for justice, improved conditions for the poor, and persuaded Malcolm to initiate a series of ecclesiastical reforms that transformed Scotland's religious and cultural life.

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(born Nov. 8, 1900, Atlanta, Ga., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1949, Atlanta) U.S. writer. Mitchell attended Smith College and then wrote for The Atlanta Journal before spending 10 years writing her one book, Gone with the Wind (1936, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1939). A story of the American Civil War and Reconstruction from the white Southern point of view, it was almost certainly the largest-selling novel in the history of U.S. publishing to that time. A parody of the book, as told from a slave's point of view, The Wind Done Gone by Alice Randall, was published in 2001.

Learn more about Mitchell, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 16, 1901, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Nov. 15, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. anthropologist. She studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict at Columbia University and did fieldwork in Samoa before completing her Ph.D. (1929). The first and most famous of her 23 books, Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), presents evidence in support of cultural determinism with respect to the formation of personality or temperament. Her other books include Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), Male and Female (1949), and Culture and Commitment (1970). Her theories caused later 20th-century anthropologists to question both the accuracy of her observations and the soundness of her conclusions. In her later years she became a prominent voice on such wide-ranging issues as women's rights and nuclear proliferation, and her great fame owed as much to the force of her personality and her outspokenness as to the quality of her scientific work. She served in curatorial positions at the American Museum of Natural History for over 50 years.

Learn more about Mead, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Margaret of France French Marguerite known as Queen Margot

(born May 14, 1553, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died March 27, 1615, Paris) Queen consort of Navarra who played a secondary part in the Wars of Religion (1562–98). The daughter of Henry II of France, her relations with her brothers Charles IX and the future Henry III were strained, and she had an early affair with Henri, duke de Guise, leader of the extremist Catholic party. She was married in 1572 to the Protestant king of Navarra, the future Henry IV of France, to seal the peace between Catholics and Protestants, but days later the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day began. Aware of her involvement in conspiracies, Henry III banished her to the castle at Usson in 1586. She granted her husband an annulment in 1600 and lived out her life in Paris. She was known for her beauty, learning, and licentious life; her Mémoires provide a vivid picture of France during her lifetime.

Learn more about Margaret of Valois with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1045, probably Hungary—died Nov. 16, 1093, Edinburgh; canonized 1250; feast day November 16, Scottish feast day June 16) Patron saint of Scotland. Sister of Edgar the Aetheling, she married Malcolm III Canmore, and three of their sons succeeded to Scotland's throne. She founded abbeys, worked for justice, improved conditions for the poor, and persuaded Malcolm to initiate a series of ecclesiastical reforms that transformed Scotland's religious and cultural life.

Learn more about Margaret of Scotland, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1522, Oudenaarde, Spanish Netherlands—died Jan. 18, 1586, Ortona, Kingdom of Naples) Duchess of Parma, Habsburg regent, and governor-general of the Netherlands (1559–67). The illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V, she was married first (1536) to Alessandro de' Medici, who was murdered in 1537, and then (1538) to Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma. Appointed to govern the Netherlands by her half brother, Philip II of Spain, Margaret tried to appease the nobility with more moderate treatment of Protestants, but she brought in an army in 1567 after Calvinist extremists attacked Catholic churches. Philip then sent the duke of Alba, who assembled a Spanish army and enforced stern measures against dissident Protestants, precipitating open revolt. Margaret resigned when Alba assumed power.

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(born Jan. 10, 1480, Brussels—died Dec. 1, 1530, Mechelen, Spanish Netherlands) Habsburg ruler who was regent of the Netherlands (1507–15, 1519–30) for her nephew, the future emperor Charles V. In 1497 she married the infante John, heir to the Spanish kingdoms, who died a few months later. In 1501 she married Philibert II, duke of Savoy, who died in 1504. Appointed regent by her father, Emperor Maximilian I, she pursued a pro-English foreign policy. In the 1520s she extended the Habsburg dominion in the northeastern Netherlands and negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the “Ladies' Peace,” with Louise of Savoy (1494–1547), regent for Francis I.

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or Margaret of Navarra French Marguerite d'Angoulême

(born April 11, 1492, Angoulême, France—died Dec. 21, 1549, Odos-Bigorre) Queen consort of Henry II of Navarra and an outstanding figure of the French Renaissance. She was the daughter of the count d'Angoulême. When her brother Francis I acceded to the crown in 1515, she became highly influential in his court. After her first husband died, she married Henry in 1525. She was noted as a patron of humanists and reformers and of such writers as François Rabelais. She was a writer and poet herself; her most important work was the Heptaméron, 72 tales modeled on Boccaccio's Decameron and published posthumously in 1558–59.

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(born Nov. 29, 1489, London, Eng.—died Oct. 18, 1541, Methven, Perth, Scot.) Queen consort of King James IV of Scotland (1503–13). The daughter of King Henry VII of England, she was married to James to improve relations between England and Scotland. After her husband's death (1513), she became regent for her son, James V (1512–1542). When she married the pro-English earl of Angus (1514), she was forced to give up the regency, but she played a key role in the conflict between the pro-French and pro-English factions in Scotland, shifting her allegiances to suit her financial interests. She obtained an annulment from Angus (1527) to marry Henry Stewart, Baron Methven, who became James's chief adviser.

Learn more about Margaret Tudor with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 8, 1900, Atlanta, Ga., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1949, Atlanta) U.S. writer. Mitchell attended Smith College and then wrote for The Atlanta Journal before spending 10 years writing her one book, Gone with the Wind (1936, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1939). A story of the American Civil War and Reconstruction from the white Southern point of view, it was almost certainly the largest-selling novel in the history of U.S. publishing to that time. A parody of the book, as told from a slave's point of view, The Wind Done Gone by Alice Randall, was published in 2001.

Learn more about Mitchell, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 16, 1901, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Nov. 15, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. anthropologist. She studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict at Columbia University and did fieldwork in Samoa before completing her Ph.D. (1929). The first and most famous of her 23 books, Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), presents evidence in support of cultural determinism with respect to the formation of personality or temperament. Her other books include Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), Male and Female (1949), and Culture and Commitment (1970). Her theories caused later 20th-century anthropologists to question both the accuracy of her observations and the soundness of her conclusions. In her later years she became a prominent voice on such wide-ranging issues as women's rights and nuclear proliferation, and her great fame owed as much to the force of her personality and her outspokenness as to the quality of her scientific work. She served in curatorial positions at the American Museum of Natural History for over 50 years.

Learn more about Mead, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Jean Margaret Wemyss

(born July 18, 1926, Neepawa, Man., Can.—died Jan. 5, 1987, Lakefield, Ont.) Canadian writer. She lived in Africa with her engineer husband in the 1950s; her experiences there provided material for her early works. She is best known for depicting the lives of women struggling for self-realization in the male-dominated world of western Canada. Her works include the novels The Stone Angel (1964), A Jest of God (1966), and The Fire-Dwellers (1969) and the stories collected in A Bird in the House (1970) and The Diviners (1974). In the 1970s she turned to writing children's books.

Learn more about Laurence, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

married name Marchesa Ossoli

(born May 23, 1810, Cambridgeport, Mass., U.S.—died July 19, 1850, at sea off Fire Island, N.Y.) U.S. critic, teacher, and woman of letters. She became part of the Transcendentalist circle (see Transcendentalism), was a close friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, and eventually became the founding editor of the Trancendentalist magazine The Dial (1840–42). Her Summer on the Lakes, in 1843 (1844), a study of frontier life, was followed by Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), a demand for women's political equality and a plea for women's intellectual and spiritual fulfillment. She traveled to Europe in 1846 as a correspondent for the New York Tribune. In Italy she married a revolutionary marquis; forced into exile, they perished in a shipwreck while returning to the U.S.

Learn more about Fuller, (Sarah) Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 18, 1939, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Canadian poet, novelist, and critic. Atwood attended the University of Toronto and Harvard University. In the poetry collection The Circle Game (1964; Governor General's Award), she celebrates the natural world and condemns materialism. Her novels, several of which have become best-sellers, include Lady Oracle (1976), Bodily Harm (1981), The Handmaid's Tale (1985; Governor General's Award), The Robber Bride (1993), Alias Grace (1996), and The Blind Assassin (2000). She is noted for her feminism and Canadian nationalism.

Learn more about Atwood, Margaret (Eleanor) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 5, 1939, Sheffield, Yorkshire, Eng.) British novelist. She graduated from the University of Cambridge. Her novels include The Realms of Gold (1975), The Radiant Way (1987), The Gates of Ivory (1991), The Peppered Moth (2000), and The Sea Lady (2007). She has also written literary biographies (like her husband, Michael Holroyd) and other literary studies and has edited the Oxford Companion to English Literature. The writer A.S. Byatt is her sister.

Learn more about Drabble, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Margaret Madeline Chase

(born Dec. 14, 1897, Skowhegan, Maine, U.S.—died May 29, 1995, Skowhegan) U.S. politician. She served as secretary to her husband, Clyde Smith, after he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1936. When he suffered a heart attack in 1940, he urged voters to elect her to the office. She became the first woman to win election to both the House (1940–49) and the Senate (1949–73). Though a staunch anticommunist, she was the first Republican senator to condemn the tactics of Joseph McCarthy, delivering a memorable “Declaration of Conscience” speech on the Senate floor in 1950. Her opinion that Pres. John F. Kennedy should use nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union prompted Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev to dub her “the devil in disguise of a woman.” She retired from politics after her defeat in 1972. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.

Learn more about Smith, Margaret Chase with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Eleanor Margaret Peachey

(born Aug. 12, 1919, Davenport, Cheshire, Eng.) English astronomer. She served as acting director (1950–51) of the Observatory of the University of London. In 1955 her husband, Geoffrey Burbidge (b. 1925), became a researcher at the Mount Wilson Observatory, and she accepted a research post at Caltech. She later joined the faculty at UC–San Diego, briefly serving as director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (1972–73). Jointly with her husband, she made notable contributions to the theory of quasars and to the understanding of how the elements are formed in the depths of stars through nuclear fusion (nucleosynthesis).

Learn more about Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1600, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died 1669/71, Westmoreland county, Va.) British colonial landowner in North America. She arrived in Maryland in 1638 and obtained a patent for 70 acres, becoming the first woman in the colony to hold land in her own right. By 1657 she was among the colony's largest landowners. In a border dispute with Virginia in 1646, she organized a group of armed volunteers to support the Maryland colony's governor, Leonard Calvert. On his death in 1647, she became executor of his estate and settled a dispute over back pay for his soldiers that had nearly led to civil war.

Learn more about Brent, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 14, 1904, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1971, Stamford, Conn.) U.S. photographer. She began her professional career as an industrial and architectural photographer in 1927. She gained a reputation for originality and in 1929 was hired by Henry R. Luce for his magazine Fortune. She covered World War II for Life magazine as the first woman photographer to serve with the U.S. armed forces. Several collections of her photographs have been published, including You Have Seen Their Faces (1937), about sharecroppers of the American South.

Learn more about Bourke-White, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Jean Margaret Wemyss

(born July 18, 1926, Neepawa, Man., Can.—died Jan. 5, 1987, Lakefield, Ont.) Canadian writer. She lived in Africa with her engineer husband in the 1950s; her experiences there provided material for her early works. She is best known for depicting the lives of women struggling for self-realization in the male-dominated world of western Canada. Her works include the novels The Stone Angel (1964), A Jest of God (1966), and The Fire-Dwellers (1969) and the stories collected in A Bird in the House (1970) and The Diviners (1974). In the 1970s she turned to writing children's books.

Learn more about Laurence, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 11, 1815, Calcutta, India—died Jan. 26, 1879, Kalutara, Ceylon) British portrait photographer. In 1864, after receiving a camera as a gift, she set up a studio and darkroom and began taking portraits. Her sitters were friends such as Alfred Tennyson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Charles Darwin. Her sensitive portraits of women, such as that of Ellen Terry, are especially noteworthy. Like many Victorian photographers, she made allegorical photographs in imitation of the Pre-Raphaelite paintings of the day. Her technical ability was criticized, but she was more interested in spiritual depth than in technical perfection; her portraits are considered exceptionally fine.

Learn more about Cameron, Julia Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 14, 1868, Washington Hall, Durham, Eng.—died July 12, 1926, Baghdad, Iraq) British traveler, writer, and colonial administrator. After graduating from Oxford, she journeyed throughout the Middle East. After World War I she wrote a well-received report on the administration of Mesopotamia between the end of the war (1918) and the Iraqi rebellion of 1920 and later helped determine postwar boundaries. In 1921 she helped place a son of the sharif of Mecca, Fayssubdotal I, on the Iraqi throne. In helping create the National Museum of Iraq, she promoted the idea that excavated antiquities should stay in their country of origin.

Learn more about Bell, Gertrude with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 5, 1939, Sheffield, Yorkshire, Eng.) British novelist. She graduated from the University of Cambridge. Her novels include The Realms of Gold (1975), The Radiant Way (1987), The Gates of Ivory (1991), The Peppered Moth (2000), and The Sea Lady (2007). She has also written literary biographies (like her husband, Michael Holroyd) and other literary studies and has edited the Oxford Companion to English Literature. The writer A.S. Byatt is her sister.

Learn more about Drabble, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 11, 1815, Calcutta, India—died Jan. 26, 1879, Kalutara, Ceylon) British portrait photographer. In 1864, after receiving a camera as a gift, she set up a studio and darkroom and began taking portraits. Her sitters were friends such as Alfred Tennyson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Charles Darwin. Her sensitive portraits of women, such as that of Ellen Terry, are especially noteworthy. Like many Victorian photographers, she made allegorical photographs in imitation of the Pre-Raphaelite paintings of the day. Her technical ability was criticized, but she was more interested in spiritual depth than in technical perfection; her portraits are considered exceptionally fine.

Learn more about Cameron, Julia Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1600, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died 1669/71, Westmoreland county, Va.) British colonial landowner in North America. She arrived in Maryland in 1638 and obtained a patent for 70 acres, becoming the first woman in the colony to hold land in her own right. By 1657 she was among the colony's largest landowners. In a border dispute with Virginia in 1646, she organized a group of armed volunteers to support the Maryland colony's governor, Leonard Calvert. On his death in 1647, she became executor of his estate and settled a dispute over back pay for his soldiers that had nearly led to civil war.

Learn more about Brent, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 14, 1904, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1971, Stamford, Conn.) U.S. photographer. She began her professional career as an industrial and architectural photographer in 1927. She gained a reputation for originality and in 1929 was hired by Henry R. Luce for his magazine Fortune. She covered World War II for Life magazine as the first woman photographer to serve with the U.S. armed forces. Several collections of her photographs have been published, including You Have Seen Their Faces (1937), about sharecroppers of the American South.

Learn more about Bourke-White, Margaret with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 18, 1939, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Canadian poet, novelist, and critic. Atwood attended the University of Toronto and Harvard University. In the poetry collection The Circle Game (1964; Governor General's Award), she celebrates the natural world and condemns materialism. Her novels, several of which have become best-sellers, include Lady Oracle (1976), Bodily Harm (1981), The Handmaid's Tale (1985; Governor General's Award), The Robber Bride (1993), Alias Grace (1996), and The Blind Assassin (2000). She is noted for her feminism and Canadian nationalism.

Learn more about Atwood, Margaret (Eleanor) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Loretta Swit (born November 4 1937) is an American stage and television actress, primarily known for her character-type roles. The naturally blonde-headed Swit is best known for her two-time Emmy-winning portrayal of Major Margaret "Hot Lips" Houlihan, on M*A*S*H.

Biography

Early life

Swit was born in Passaic, New Jersey, U.S., to Polish-Catholic immigrants. She studied with Gene Frankel in Manhattan and considered him her acting coach. She regularly returned to his studio to speak with aspiring actors throughout her career. Swit is also a talented singer who trained at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts before entering the theater.

Theatre

In 1967, Swit toured with the national company of Any Wednesday, starring Gardner McKay. She would continue on as one of the Pigeon sisters opposite Don Rickles and Ernest Borgnine in a Los Angeles run of The Odd Couple.

In 1975, Swit played in Same Time, Next Year on Broadway opposite Ted Bessell. She also performed on Broadway in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

From there, she played Agnes Gooch in the Las Vegas version of Mame starring Susan Hayward and later Celeste Holm.

Most recently, Swit has toured with the Vagina Monologues.

In October-November 2003, she starred as the title character in North Carolina Theatre production of Mame in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Television

When Swit arrived in Hollywood in 1970, she performed in television shows including Gunsmoke, Mission: Impossible, Hawaii Five-O and Mannix.

M*A*S*H

Starting in 1972, Swit played the character of Major Margaret "Hot Lips" Houlihan in the television series M*A*S*H. She inherited the star-making role from the similarly large-mouthed actress Sally Kellerman, who portrayed the character in the feature film. Swit, Alan Alda, Jamie Farr and William Christopher stayed for all 11 seasons of the show, from 1972 to 1983. She along with Alda, Christopher, and Farr, all had on- and off-screen chemistry with each other, and spent a great deal of time with each other. She and Alda were the only two actors to have been on the pilot episode and the finale. She did not appear in only 11 out of the total of 251 episodes. Swit received two Emmy Awards for her work on M*A*S*H. Later, Swit was also the first M*A*S*H star to visit South Korea when she narrated the documentary Korea, the Forgotten War.

Cagney & Lacey

In 1981, Swit played the Cagney role in the movie pilot for the television series Cagney & Lacey, but was precluded by contractual obligations from continuing the role.

Other TV work

She also guest starred in shows such as The Love Boat, Match Game, Pyramid, and the latest is Hollywood Squares. She also starred in the television version of "The Best Christmas Pageant Ever." Loretta's latest appearance was on GSN Live on October 10th, 2008.

Personal life

Swit married actor Dennis Holahan in 1983 and divorced him in 1995. Holahan played the part of Per Johannsen, a Swedish diplomat who became briefly involved with Swit's character in an episode of M*A*S*H. Swit has not remarried and has no children.

Swit has written a book on needlepoint (Needlepoint Scrapbook). She also has her own line of jewelry, which is sold at stores across the United States.

Swit is a very strong advocate for animals and animal rights, donating much of her time to animal-related causes. Over the years she has owned horses, dogs and cats. Presently, she owns three cats and a horse.

In her 1986 book Needlepoint Scrapbook, she declares that "We are Ms. Pac-Man fanatics in our house." She owns a Ms. Pac-Man machine. The book also includes a Ms. Pac-Man needlepoint design.

Awards and honours

External links

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