Marcus

Marcus

[mahr-kuhs]
Jastrow, Marcus, 1829-1903, American rabbi and Talmudic scholar, b. Poland. He was a rabbi (1866-92) in Philadelphia, editor of the Talmud material of The Jewish Encyclopedia, and author of Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (1903).
Aurelius, Marcus: see Marcus Aurelius.
Manilius, Marcus, fl. A.D. 10, Roman poet. Of his didactic poem on astrology, the Astronomica, five books remain. These may or may not have constituted the whole work.
Marcus, in the Bible: see Mark, Saint.
Marcus, Rudolph, 1923-, American chemist, b. Montreal, Canada. A professor at the California Institute of Technology, he was awarded the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing a theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.
Verrius Flaccus, Marcus, fl. 20 B.C., Roman grammarian. A freedman, he was appointed by Augustus to educate his grandsons and died at an advanced age during the reign of Tiberius. Of his numerous works, only one, his treatise De verborum significatu [on the meaning of words], survives, in an abridgment by Sextus Pompeius Festus. This work is a source of information about Latin grammar and Roman literature, customs, and myths.
Garvey, Marcus, 1887-1940, American proponent of black nationalism, b. Jamaica. At the age of 14, Garvey went to work as a printer's apprentice. After leading (1907) an unsuccessful printers' strike in Jamaica, he edited several newspapers in Costa Rica and Panama. During a period in London he took law classes and became interested in African history and black nationalism. His concern for the problems of blacks led him to found (1914) the Universal Negro Improvement Association and in 1916 he moved to New York City and opened a branch in Harlem. The UNIA was an organization designed "to promote the spirit of race pride." Broadly, its goals were to foster worldwide unity among all blacks and to establish the greatness of the African heritage. The organization quickly spread in black communities throughout the United States, the Caribbean, and Central America, and soon had thousands of members.

Garvey addressed himself to the lowest classes of blacks and rejected any notion of integration. Convinced that blacks could not secure their rights in countries where they were a minority race, he urged a "back to Africa" movement. In Africa, he said, an autonomous black state could be established, possessing its own culture and civilization, free from the domination of whites. Garvey was the most influential black leader of the early 1920s. His brilliant oratory and his newspaper, Negro World, brought him millions of followers. His importance declined, however, when his misuse of funds intended to establish a steamship company that would serve members of the African diaspora, the Black Star Line, resulted in a mail fraud conviction. He entered jail in 1925 and was deported to Jamaica two years later. From this time on his influence decreased, and he died in relative obscurity.

See Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, compiled by A. J. Garvey (2d ed. 1967, repr. 1986); biographies by E. D. Cronon (1955, repr. 1969) and C. Grant (2008); studies by A. J. Garvey (1963), T. Vincent (1971), E. C. Fax (1972), E. D. Cronon, ed. (1973), J. H. Clarke, ed. (1974), and J. Stein (1985).

Minucius Felix, Marcus, fl. 2d cent., Christian apologist, author of a dialogue, Octavius, one of the earliest Latin apologies. In it a pagan and a Christian discuss the merits of Christian life.

See J. H. Freese, The Octavius of Minucius Felix (1919).

Whitman, Marcus, 1802-47, American pioneer and missionary in the Oregon country, b. Federal Hollow (later Rushville), N.Y. In 1836 he left a country medical practice to go West as a missionary for the joint Presbyterian-Congregationalist board. With his wife, Narcissa Prentiss Whitman, and others, he crossed from Missouri to the Columbia River country and founded a mission at Waiilatpu (now in Whitman Mission National Historic Site, near Walla Walla, Wash.). Disagreement among the missionaries and a board order (1842) to curtail their work led Whitman to ride back across the continent on horseback during the winter of 1842-43 to settle the various disputes. He was successful and returned with the "great emigration" of 1843 over the Oregon Trail. The Cayuse around Waiilatpu, never friendly, grew more hostile, and on Nov. 29, 1847, they attacked the mission and killed Whitman, his wife, and others. Later, there was argument as to whether Whitman made his ride of 1842-43 in order to "save" Oregon from the British, the boundary still being in dispute. However, this "Whitman legend" has been discredited.

See biographies by N. Jones (1959, repr. 1968) and C. M. Drury (1937, and 2 vol., 1973).

Daly, Marcus, 1841-1900, American copper magnate, b. Ireland. He went to New York City at 15 and later moved to California, where he worked as a miner. He was employed by the "silver kings," J. G. Fair and J. W. Mackay, at the Comstock Lode. In 1876 he was sent by a large company to investigate the silver mines at Butte, Mont. Discovering that there was rich copper beneath the silver, he purchased the Anaconda silver mine and tested the copper. Then, with the backing of George Hearst and others, he quietly bought up neighboring mines and formed a mining company. He built a smelter at Anaconda and connected it by rail with Butte. He was so successful that Anaconda became almost a household word in the United States. Daly purchased coal mines to fuel his furnaces, bought forests to supply his timber, and built power plants to supply the mines. He also established a number of banks. His great rival was William A. Clark, and their bitter struggle for control kept the copper industry in turmoil; the contest for power included other men, notably F. Augustus Heinze. Though Daly himself did not seek public office, his effective political machine thwarted Clark's ambitions for many years. The feud dominated Montana politics and economy. Daly also established a newspaper, the influential Anaconda Standard.

See C. G. Glasscock, The War of the Copper Kings (1935, repr. 1971).

(born Sept. 4, 1802, Rushville, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 29, 1847, Waiilatpu, Oregon Territory) U.S. missionary and pioneer. A physician and Congregational missionary, he was sent to the Oregon region after offering his services to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 1836 he and his wife founded a mission among the Cayuse Indians near present-day Walla Walla, Wash. He helped the Indians build houses and a corn-grinding mill, and his wife opened a mission school. In 1842 he traveled east to encourage settlement of the Oregon country. On his return he joined a caravan of 1,000 immigrants to the Columbia River valley. He cared for Indian children in an 1847 measles epidemic, but he was accused of sorcery when many died while white children survived. The Indians attacked the whites and massacred 14, including the Whitmans. Their deaths led Congress to organize the Oregon Territory in 1848.

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(born 116, probably Reate [Italy]—died 27 BC) Roman scholar and satirist. Varro was active in public life, rising to the office of praetor. He sided with Pompey the Great but later reconciled with Julius Caesar. A prolific writer, he sought in his writings to inculcate moral virtues and to link Rome's future with its glorious past. He is best known for his Saturae Menippeae (“Menippean Satires”), medleys in mixed prose and verse that mock the absurdities of modern times. He wrote some 75 works in more than 600 books on a wide range of subjects—jurisprudence, astronomy, geography, education, and literary history—as well as in a variety of genres—satires, poems, orations, and letters.

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(born Sept. 4, 1802, Rushville, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 29, 1847, Waiilatpu, Oregon Territory) U.S. missionary and pioneer. A physician and Congregational missionary, he was sent to the Oregon region after offering his services to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 1836 he and his wife founded a mission among the Cayuse Indians near present-day Walla Walla, Wash. He helped the Indians build houses and a corn-grinding mill, and his wife opened a mission school. In 1842 he traveled east to encourage settlement of the Oregon country. On his return he joined a caravan of 1,000 immigrants to the Columbia River valley. He cared for Indian children in an 1847 measles epidemic, but he was accused of sorcery when many died while white children survived. The Indians attacked the whites and massacred 14, including the Whitmans. Their deaths led Congress to organize the Oregon Territory in 1848.

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Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, marble portrait bust, early 1st century BC; in the Louvre, Paris.

(born 63 BC?—died March, 12 BC, Campania) Powerful deputy of Augustus. He helped Octavian (later Augustus) take power after Julius Caesar's murder (44 BC), defeating Sextus Pompeius in 36 and Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31. He went on to quell rebellions, found colonies, administer parts of the empire, and give to Rome funds for public works and buildings. In 23 Augustus seemed to make him heir, and Agrippa married Augustus's daughter, Julia. His administrative and military skills were particularly directed to the eastern empire, where in 15 he met with and made an ally of Herod of Judaea. Agrippa's writings (now lost) influenced Strabo and Pliny the Elder. His daughter Agrippina the Elder (14? BCAD 33) was the wife of Germanicus Caesar, mother of Caligula and Agrippina the Younger, and grandmother of Nero.

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(born 106 BC, Arpinum, Latium—died Dec. 7, 43 BC, Formiae) Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer. Born to a wealthy family, he quickly established a brilliant career in law and plunged into politics, then rife with factionalism and conspiracy. Cicero was elected consul in 63 BC. Of his speeches, perhaps the best known are those he made against Catiline, whose uprising he foiled. He vainly tried to uphold republican principles in the civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic. After the death of Julius Caesar, he delivered his 14 Philippic orations against Mark Antony. When the triumvirate of Antony, Octavian (later Augustus), and Marcus Lepidus was formed, he was executed. His extant works include 58 orations and more than 900 letters, as well as many poems, philosophical and political treatises, and books of rhetoric. He is remembered as the greatest Roman orator and the innovator of what became known as Ciceronian rhetoric, which remained the foremost rhetorical model for many centuries.

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(born 116, probably Reate [Italy]—died 27 BC) Roman scholar and satirist. Varro was active in public life, rising to the office of praetor. He sided with Pompey the Great but later reconciled with Julius Caesar. A prolific writer, he sought in his writings to inculcate moral virtues and to link Rome's future with its glorious past. He is best known for his Saturae Menippeae (“Menippean Satires”), medleys in mixed prose and verse that mock the absurdities of modern times. He wrote some 75 works in more than 600 books on a wide range of subjects—jurisprudence, astronomy, geography, education, and literary history—as well as in a variety of genres—satires, poems, orations, and letters.

Learn more about Varro, Marcus Terentius with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Cato the Censor or Cato the Elder

(born 234, Tusculum, Latium—died 149 BC) Roman statesman and orator, the first important Latin prose writer. Born of plebeian stock, he fought in the Second Punic War. His oratorical skills paved the way for his political career. He held conservative anti-Hellenic views and opposed the pro-Hellenic Scipio family, whose power he broke. Elected censor (magistrate in charge of censuses, taxes, and the public good) in 184, he tried to restore the mos majorum (“ancestral custom”) and combat Greek influence, which he believed undermined Roman morality. He crafted laws against luxury and the financial freedom of women and never ceased to demand the destruction of Carthage. His writings include works on history, medicine, law, military science, and agriculture. His great-grandson Cato the Younger (b. 95—d. 46 BC) was a leading Optimate (see Optimates and Populares) who sought to preserve the republic against Julius Caesar.

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(born Dec. 13, 1890, McKeesport, Pa., U.S.—died Dec. 21, 1980, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright, screenwriter, and director. He covered theatrical news as a journalist in Pittsburgh and New York City. He collaborated with George S. Kaufman on the play Dulcy (1921), which they followed with the comedies To the Ladies (1922) and Beggar on Horseback (1924) and the librettos for the musicals Helen of Troy, New York (1923) and Be Yourself (1924). Connelly went on to write Green Pastures (1930, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1936), his best-known work, and The Farmer Takes a Wife (1934; film, 1935).

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in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus orig. Marcus Annius Verus

Marcus Aurelius, bas-relief depicting his triumphal entry into Rome in a quadriga; in the Palazzo elipsis

(born April 26, AD 121, Rome—died March 17, 180, Vindobona [Vienna] or Sirmium, Pannonia) Roman emperor (161–180). He was born into a wealthy and prominent family. Hadrian arranged that Marcus and Lucius Verus be adopted by the designated future emperor Antoninus Pius, who dutifully groomed Marcus as his heir. On his accession, Marcus nevertheless shared power with his adoptive brother as coemperor, though he himself remained the more dominant. His reign was marked by numerous military crises, all the major frontiers being threatened by invasion. Struggles against the Parthians (162–166) were successful, but returning troops brought a devastating plague to Rome. With a concurrent German invasion, Roman morale declined; the Germans were repulsed, but Verus died during the campaign (169). Marcus made his son Commodus coemperor in 177. Though a man of gentle character and wide learning, Marcus opposed Christianity and supported persecution of its adherents. His Meditations on Stoicism, considered one of the great books of all times, gives a full picture of his religious and moral values. His reign is often thought to mark the Golden Age of Rome.

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orig. Marcus Alonzo Hanna

(born Sept. 24, 1837, New Lisbon, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 15, 1904, Washington, D.C.) U.S. industrialist and political kingmaker. He became a businessman in Cleveland, Ohio, with interests in banking, coal and iron, transportation, and publishing. Convinced that the interests of big business would best be served by the Republican Party, he began in 1880 to gather support among industrialists for its candidates. In 1892 he helped William McKinley secure the Ohio governorship. For McKinley's 1896 presidential campaign Hanna helped the Republicans raise an unprecedented $3.5 million, enough to overwhelm the grassroots campaign of William Jennings Bryan. He served in the U.S. Senate (1897–1904).

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(born 106 BC, Arpinum, Latium—died Dec. 7, 43 BC, Formiae) Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer. Born to a wealthy family, he quickly established a brilliant career in law and plunged into politics, then rife with factionalism and conspiracy. Cicero was elected consul in 63 BC. Of his speeches, perhaps the best known are those he made against Catiline, whose uprising he foiled. He vainly tried to uphold republican principles in the civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic. After the death of Julius Caesar, he delivered his 14 Philippic orations against Mark Antony. When the triumvirate of Antony, Octavian (later Augustus), and Marcus Lepidus was formed, he was executed. His extant works include 58 orations and more than 900 letters, as well as many poems, philosophical and political treatises, and books of rhetoric. He is remembered as the greatest Roman orator and the innovator of what became known as Ciceronian rhetoric, which remained the foremost rhetorical model for many centuries.

Learn more about Cicero, Marcus Tullius with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Cato the Censor or Cato the Elder

(born 234, Tusculum, Latium—died 149 BC) Roman statesman and orator, the first important Latin prose writer. Born of plebeian stock, he fought in the Second Punic War. His oratorical skills paved the way for his political career. He held conservative anti-Hellenic views and opposed the pro-Hellenic Scipio family, whose power he broke. Elected censor (magistrate in charge of censuses, taxes, and the public good) in 184, he tried to restore the mos majorum (“ancestral custom”) and combat Greek influence, which he believed undermined Roman morality. He crafted laws against luxury and the financial freedom of women and never ceased to demand the destruction of Carthage. His writings include works on history, medicine, law, military science, and agriculture. His great-grandson Cato the Younger (b. 95—d. 46 BC) was a leading Optimate (see Optimates and Populares) who sought to preserve the republic against Julius Caesar.

Learn more about Cato, Marcus Porcius with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, marble portrait bust, early 1st century BC; in the Louvre, Paris.

(born 63 BC?—died March, 12 BC, Campania) Powerful deputy of Augustus. He helped Octavian (later Augustus) take power after Julius Caesar's murder (44 BC), defeating Sextus Pompeius in 36 and Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31. He went on to quell rebellions, found colonies, administer parts of the empire, and give to Rome funds for public works and buildings. In 23 Augustus seemed to make him heir, and Agrippa married Augustus's daughter, Julia. His administrative and military skills were particularly directed to the eastern empire, where in 15 he met with and made an ally of Herod of Judaea. Agrippa's writings (now lost) influenced Strabo and Pliny the Elder. His daughter Agrippina the Elder (14? BCAD 33) was the wife of Germanicus Caesar, mother of Caligula and Agrippina the Younger, and grandmother of Nero.

Learn more about Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Marcus is a city in Cherokee County, Iowa, United States. The population was 1,139 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Marcus is located at (42.822892, -95.804894).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles (4.5 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,139 people, 477 households, and 300 families residing in the city. The population density was 658.4 people per square mile (254.2/km²). There were 533 housing units at an average density of 308.1/sq mi (119.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.42% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.61% Asian, and 0.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.44% of the population.

There were 477 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 28.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,604, and the median income for a family was $45,500. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $19,167 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,381. About 6.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

Notable natives

References

External links

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