Garvey addressed himself to the lowest classes of blacks and rejected any notion of integration. Convinced that blacks could not secure their rights in countries where they were a minority race, he urged a "back to Africa" movement. In Africa, he said, an autonomous black state could be established, possessing its own culture and civilization, free from the domination of whites. Garvey was the most influential black leader of the early 1920s. His brilliant oratory and his newspaper, Negro World, brought him millions of followers. His importance declined, however, when his misuse of funds intended to establish a steamship company that would serve members of the African diaspora, the Black Star Line, resulted in a mail fraud conviction. He entered jail in 1925 and was deported to Jamaica two years later. From this time on his influence decreased, and he died in relative obscurity.
See Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, compiled by A. J. Garvey (2d ed. 1967, repr. 1986); biographies by E. D. Cronon (1955, repr. 1969) and C. Grant (2008); studies by A. J. Garvey (1963), T. Vincent (1971), E. C. Fax (1972), E. D. Cronon, ed. (1973), J. H. Clarke, ed. (1974), and J. Stein (1985).
See J. H. Freese, The Octavius of Minucius Felix (1919).
See biographies by N. Jones (1959, repr. 1968) and C. M. Drury (1937, and 2 vol., 1973).
See C. G. Glasscock, The War of the Copper Kings (1935, repr. 1971).
There were 477 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 28.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,604, and the median income for a family was $45,500. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $19,167 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,381. About 6.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.