Definitions

Mar

Mar

[mahr]
Mar, John Erskine, 1st (or 6th) earl of, d. 1572, regent of Scotland. As Lord Erskine he was keeper of Edinburgh and Stirling castles, a source of much political strength. In the struggle between the regent Mary of Guise and the Protestant nobles, Erskine intervened to a limited degree on both sides, and on the approach of the English (1559) he received the regent into Edinburgh Castle. When Mary Queen of Scots returned from France in 1561 he was made a member of her privy council, and in 1565 he was created earl of Mar. (There is still dispute as to whether this constituted a restoration of the earldom of Mar, as Erskine claimed, or a new creation; hence the alternative numbering.) In 1567, Mar was given custody of Mary's young son, later James VI. The earl of Bothwell tried to gain control of the prince, but Mar evaded him and joined the revolt of the nobles. He was one of the council to whom Mary signed (1567) over the government. Although Mar was chosen regent after the earl of Lennox's death in 1571, James Douglas, the earl of Morton, held the real power. Mar's death forestalled a proposal by Elizabeth I of England that Mary, a prisoner in England, be turned over to the Scots for execution. His wife continued as a guardian of James.
Mar, John Erskine, 2d (or 7th) earl of, 1558-1634, Scottish nobleman; son of the 1st (or 6th) earl. In 1578 he was persuaded by James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton, to assert his claims to Stirling Castle and the guardianship of the young James VI (later James I of England). Mar emerged in control of the king's person, while Morton attempted to recover his authority. After the rise of Esmé Stuart, duke of Lennox, and James Stuart, earl of Arran, Mar fell out of favor with the king. He participated in the capture of James in the raid of Ruthven (1582). After James's escape, Mar was received at court, but he was banished in 1584 and fled to England. In 1585 he joined the other banished Scottish nobles who invaded Scotland and overthrew Arran. Mar was made a member of the privy council. In 1601 he was sent as ambassador to England to offer secret assistance to the 2d earl of Essex in his rebellion. This was crushed before his arrival, and Mar spent his time negotiating the question of James's succession to the English throne. In 1603 he accompanied James to England and was made a member of the English privy council. From 1616 to 1630 he was lord high treasurer of Scotland.
Mar, John Erskine, 6th (or 11th) earl of, 1675-1732, Scottish nobleman, leader of the Jacobites. He was nicknamed "Bobbing John," probably because of his political vacillation. He succeeded his father as earl in 1689 and in the following years was generally a member of the court party. He was twice secretary of state for Scotland under Queen Anne and played a leading part in promoting the union (1707) with England. After the accession (1714) of George I, he made an effusive offer of his services but was dismissed. He then withdrew secretly to Scotland, where he raised (1715) the standard for James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, without orders from him to do so. The rebellion failed, largely through Mar's incompetence. He was defeated at Sheriffmuir and fled (1716) to France with the Pretender. He was attainted of treason in England, but his active dissatisfaction with the Jacobite court and his suspected treachery caused the Pretender also to break with him in 1724. Mar remained in exile until his death.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Mar'rallang was the name shared by twin sisters. They both married the same man.

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