Dakshin Desh is Hindi for 'Southern Land' (implied in this naming was that India was the 'Southern land' whereas China was the corresponding 'Northern land'). Amulaya Sen and Kanai Chatterjee were the leading figures of the Dakshin Desh-group. In difference to CPI(ML), whose policies of armed struggle bordered individual terrorism, the Dakshin Desh-group upheld that mass mobilisations were requisites for engaging in armed struggle. The group began armed activities in the Jangal Mahal area, Burdwan district, West Bengal, were Dalits and Adivasis constituted large sections of the local population. The territory was covered with deep forests, considered ideal for guerrilla warfare. The group formed political militia squads, which moved around in the villages and conducted political activities to mobilise local peasants. The squads were often made up by recruits from Calcutta. The squads looted grain storages, captured firearms and assassinated landlords and perceived police informers. By 1973 it was estimated that the group had 37 squads in the area, with a combined membership of 106.
Chatterji died in 1982. Following his death, MCC was riddled by internal divisions. Chatterji's successor, Siveji, and his deputy, Ramadhar Singh, disagreed over the policy of individual annihilations. Singh broke away and joined Kanu Sanyal's group instead. In the mid- and late 1980, leadership of MCC was taken over by Sanjay Dusadh and Pramod Mishra. At this point, the influence of the group had spread to the central parts of Bihar. The group now counted with 500 wholetime cadres and 10 000 members. Mass organizations of MCC included Krantikari Kisan Committee (Revolutionary Peasants Committee), Jana Suraksha Sangarsh Manch (People's Defence Struggle Bloc), Krantikarai Buddhijevi Sangh and Krantikari Chhatra League (Revolutionary Students League). The armed wing of the party was called Lal Raskha Dal (Red Defence Force).
In rural Bihar the party had become a major force to reckon with in some areas. In the pockets of its influence the party ran a parallel juridicial system, with a system of people's courts. The expansion of the party occurred as it became one of several caste-based armed groups in the area. The party mobilized lower-caste Biharis, and frequently clashes with various militia groups defending upper-caste interests. At times it also clashed with other Naxalite groups, such as when MCC militia killed 5 Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation members in Jehanabad district on April 4, 1994. Militia activities of MCC reached its peak by 1990.
In September 1993, MCC, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War and Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Party Unity decided to coordinate their struggles. As a result, the All India People's Resistance Forum was formed, with the participation of cadres from the three parties. AIPRF held a mass rally, with around 100 000 participants, on March 21, 1994.