Manuel Estrada took the presidency after the assassination of José María Reina. He brought stability to Guatemala, often at the price of dictatorial rule. He encouraged development of the nation's infrastructure of highways, railroads, and sea ports. The United Fruit Company became an important force in Guatemala during his presidency.
In 1906 Estrada faced serious revolts against his rule; the rebels were supported by the governments of most of the other Central American nations, but Estrada succeeded in putting them down, in part with the help of Mexico's Porfirio Díaz. Estrada continued in power until forced to resign by new revolts in 1920. "By 1918 opposition to his rule was growing in the capital city, among business leaders, military officers, intellectuals, and some students. Several assassination plots failed, but in April 1920 he was removed from office by the army and the national assembly, which charged that he was mentally incompetent.