Manuel II of Portugal

Manuel II of Portugal

Manuel II (Emanuel II), the Patriot (Port. o Patriota) or the Missed King (Port. o Rei Saudade), named Manuel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Eugénio de Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha e Bragança — (March 19, 1889 – July 2, 1932) reigned as the 34th (or 35th according to some historians) and last King of Portugal from 1908 to 1910.

Early life and reign

Young Manuel was born in the last year of the reign of his grandfather, King Luís I. He was created Duke of Beja. He was the son of Carlos I and Amélie of Orleans.

On February 1, 1908, the royal family returned from the palace of Vila Viçosa to Lisbon. They travelled by coach to Almada and from then took a boat to cross the Tagus River and disembarked in Cais do Sodré, in central Lisbon. On their way to the royal palace, the carriage with King Carlos I and his family passed through Terreiro do Paço. While crossing the square, shots were fired from the crowd by at least three men: Alfredo Costa, Manuel Buiça and Aquilino Ribeiro. The King died immediately; his heir, Crown Prince Luís Filipe was mortally wounded; Prince Manuel hit in the arm and Queen Amélie surprisingly unharmed. It was the quick thinking of Queen Amélie that saved her son Manuel.

The assassins were shot on the spot by members of the bodyguard and later recognized as members of the Portuguese Republican Party. About twenty minutes later, Prince Luis Filipe died and days later, Manuel was acclaimed King of Portugal. The young King, who had not been groomed for kingship, sought to save the fragile position of the Braganza monarchy by dismissing the dictator João Franco and his entire cabinet in 1908. The ambitions of the various political parties made Manuel's reign a turbulent one. Free elections were declared in which republicans and socialists won an overwhelming victory.

Revolution and exile

The murder of a prominent republican precipitated the revolution that had been so long in preparation. Revolution erupted on October 4, 1910. A military coup was commenced by soldiers who were joined by some civilians and municipal guards attacking loyal garrisons and the royal palace, while the guns of a warship added to the revolutionary colonnade. Three days of almost constant street fighting were enough to drive out the young King. Manuel fled on the royal yacht Amélia IV to British ruled Gibraltar.

King Manuel II lived in exile in the United Kingdom. While King he had been made a Knight of the Garter by his distant cousin King Edward VII. His great-grandfather King Ferdinand II had been a first cousin of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

On September 4, 1913, he married Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1890–1966). Manuel wrote an invaluable guide to medieval and Renaissance Portuguese literature, but died young. Royalist movements in Portugal subsequent to 1910 failed to restore the Braganza dynasty.

Manuel died suddenly on July 2, 1932, at Fulwell Park, Twickenham, Middlesex, England of a tracheal oedema. . The estate was sold for development, but the Portuguese connection is reflected in some of the road names: Portugal Gardens, Manoel Road, Lisbon Avenue and Augusta Road.

His death has been regarded as suspicious by some due to the fact that he had been playing tennis on 1 July and was apparently in an excellent state of health. An incident surrounding his sudden death was mentioned in the autobiography of Harold Brust, a member of Scotland Yard Special Branch in charge of protecting public figures. In his memoirs, Brust speaks of an incident which probably occurred in 1931 in which he mentions an intruder in the grounds of Fulwell Park who, when arrested, the Police confirmed as being a prominent member of Portuguese republican terrorist group the Carbonária and was subsequently deported to Lisbon. To date the identity of the intruder has not been confirmed. Questions remain as to the reason for the man's intrusion.

As the King had no children, before his death he recognised his cousin from a previously rival branch, Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza, to be the legitimate heir to the Portuguese Crown. In addition with his mother, Queen Amélie, he was a godparent to the son of the Duke. The Duke had married a cousin from the Brazilian branch of the Braganza dynasty.



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Patrilineal descent

Manuel's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that Manuel’s historically accurate royal house was the House of Wettin.

Descent before Conrad the Great is taken from and may be inaccurate.

  1. Burkhard I, Duke of Thuringia, d. 870
  2. Burchard, Duke of Thuringia, 836 - 908
  3. (possibly) Burkhard III of Grabfeldgau, 866 - 913
  4. Dedi I, Count of Hessegau, 896 - 957
  5. (probably) Dietrich I of Wettin, d. 976
  6. (possibly) Dedi II, Count of Hessegau, 946 - 1009
  7. Dietrich II of Wettin, 991 - 1034
  8. Thimo I of Wettin, d. 1099
  9. Thimo II the Brave, Count of Wettin, d. 1118
  10. Conrad, Margrave of Meissen, 1098 - 1157
  11. Otto II, Margrave of Meissen, 1125 - 1190
  12. Dietrich I, Margrave of Meissen, 1162 - 1221
  13. Henry III, Margrave of Meissen, c. 1215 - 1288
  14. Albert II, Margrave of Meissen, 1240 - 1314
  15. Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen, 1257 - 1323
  16. Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen, 1310 - 1349
  17. Frederick III, Landgrave of Thuringia, 1332 - 1381
  18. Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, 1370 - 1428
  19. Frederick II, Elector of Saxony, 1412 - 1464
  20. Ernest, Elector of Saxony, 1441 - 1486
  21. John, Elector of Saxony, 1468 - 1532
  22. John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, 1503 - 1554
  23. Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1530 - 1573
  24. John II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1570 - 1605
  25. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, 1601 - 1675
  26. John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1658 - 1729
  27. Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1697 - 1764
  28. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1724 - 1800
  29. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1750 - 1806
  30. Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 4th Prince of Kohary, 1785 - 1851
  31. Ferdinand II of Portugal, 1816 - 1885
  32. Luís I of Portugal, 1838 - 1889
  33. Carlos I of Portugal, 1863 - 1908
  34. Manuel II of Portugal, 1889 - 1932

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