Mangazeya was a Northwest Siberian trans-Ural trade colony and later city in the 16-17th centuries. It was situated where the Ob and Yenisei rivers flow into the Arctic Ocean.

Russian settlers of the White Sea coasts of Russia (pomors) had found a route along the Arctic coast to Arkhangelsk to trade with Norwegian, English and Dutch merchants. Mangazeya used to accumulate furs and ivory (walrus tusks) around the year to be shipped out during the short Northern summer.

This trade route was forbidden in 1619 under the penalty of death, for two reasons: the state was unable to collect on it, and there was a fear of English trading penetration into Siberia. The city strived to exist for some 50 years more, but eventually Mangazeya was abandoned. Following the catastrophic fire of 1662, the remaining population was evacuated to Turukhansk, which was known as New Mangazeya until the 1780s.

The location of original Mangazeya and the Pomor's Northern Sea Route were forgotten until the 20th century, when archaeologists discovered remains of a Kremlin and Gostiny Dvor on the site of Mangazeya.

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