MacArthur

MacArthur

[muhk-ahr-ther, muh-kahr-]
MacArthur, Arthur, 1845-1912, American army officer, b. Springfield, Mass.; father of Douglas MacArthur. Raised in Wisconsin, he served with the 24th Wisconsin Volunteers in the Civil War and fought in many Western campaigns and in the Chattanooga campaign of 1863. He received the Medal of Honor for gallantry. Joining the regular army after the war, he fought in both Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War and was (1900-1901) military governor of the Philippines. He had risen (1906) to the rank of lieutenant general when he retired in 1909.
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964, American general, b. Little Rock, Ark.; son of Arthur MacArthur.

Early Career

MacArthur was reared on army posts and attended military school in Texas. At West Point he achieved an outstanding scholastic record, and after graduation (1903) he served in the Philippines and in Japan. He was (1906-7) aide to President Theodore Roosevelt, a friend of his father, and was attached (1913-17) to the army general staff. After the United States entered World War I he fought in France, first as chief of staff of the 42d (Rainbow) Division and then, having been promoted (June, 1918) to brigadier general, as commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade.

As superintendent of West Point (1919-22) he helped modernize the academy's military training program. After holding various commands (1922-25) in the Philippines, he returned to the United States and served (1925) on the court-martial of Gen. William Mitchell. He was (1928-30) department commander in the Philippines and then served (1930-35) as chief of the general staff. In 1932 he provoked much criticism by personally commanding the troop action that evicted the Bonus Marchers from Washington. In the tense and threatening days of Japanese expansion President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appointed (1935) MacArthur head of the American military mission to the new Philippine Commonwealth. Accepting command of the Philippine military establishment, he retired (1937) from the U.S. army, but later returned to duty (July, 1941) to command U.S. armed forces in East Asia.

World War II

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, MacArthur commanded the defense of the Philippines until Mar., 1942, when, under the orders of President Roosevelt, he left for Australia to take command of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific. From Australia he launched the New Guinea campaign and later (Oct., 1944-July, 1945) directed the campaigns that led to the liberation of the Philippines. He was promoted (Dec., 1944) to the new rank of general of the army (five-star general). MacArthur accepted the surrender of Japan on the U.S.S. Missouri on Sept. 2, 1945. He was then named commander of the Allied powers in Japan and directed the Allied occupation of Japan. He was seriously considered for the Republican presidential nomination in 1948, but his defeat in the Wisconsin state primary discouraged his supporters.

The Korean War and After

At the beginning (1950) of the Korean War he was appointed commander of UN military forces in South Korea, while retaining his command of Allied forces in Japan. After driving the North Korean forces back over the 38th parallel, MacArthur received President Truman's permission to press into North Korea and advance all the way to the Yalu River—the border between North Korea and Communist China—despite warnings that this might provoke Chinese intervention. When China did intervene, causing the UN forces to fall back in disarray, MacArthur pressed for permission to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria. Truman refused such permission and finally (after MacArthur had made the dispute public) removed him from command in Apr., 1951.

On his return to the United States, MacArthur was given a hero's welcome and invited to address a joint session of Congress. Another attempt to nominate MacArthur for the presidency was unsuccessful in 1952. Retired from active service, he became an officer of a large business corporation.

Bibliography

See biographies by D. C. James (3 vol., 1970-85), N. Finkelstein (1989), M. Schaller (1989), and G. Perret (1996); studies by C. Whitney (1956), J. W. Spanier (1959, repr. 1965), G. M. Long (1969), J. Clayton (1985), S. R. Taaffe (1998), and S. Weintraub (2000) and (2007).

Macarthur, Mary Reid, 1880-1921, British labor organizer, b. Glasgow, Scotland. Working in her father's draper's shop, she became prominent in the shop assistants' union. As the representative of the women chain makers of Cradley Heath, she secured (1909) a minimum wage and led a strike to compel employers to pay the increase without delay. She visited the United States in 1920 as a British representative in the first labor conference convened under the League of Nations. She married (1911) William Crawford Anderson, chairman of the Independent Labour party.

See M. A. Hamilton, Mary Macarthur (1925).

(born Jan. 26, 1880, Little Rock, Ark., U.S.—died April 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.) U.S. general. Son of Gen. Arthur MacArthur (1845–1912), he graduated from West Point, of which he became superintendent (1919–22). He rose through the ranks to become general and army chief of staff (1930–35). In 1932 he commanded the troops that evicted the Bonus Army. In 1937 he took over command of the Philippine military. At the outbreak of World War II he was recalled to active duty; he led the combined Philippine-U.S. forces in the Philippines until it was overrun by the Japanese (1942). From Australia, he commanded U.S. forces in the South Pacific and directed the recapture of strategic islands, returning as promised (“I shall return”) to liberate the Philippines in 1944. Promoted to general of the army, he received Japan's surrender on Sept. 2, 1945. As Allied commander of the postwar occupation of Japan (1945–51), he directed the restoration of the country's economy and the drafting of a democratic constitution. As commander of UN forces in the Korean War in 1950, he stemmed the advance of North Korean troops. His request for authority to bomb China was rejected by Pres. Harry Truman; when MacArthur made the dispute public, Truman relieved him of his command, for insubordination. He returned to the U.S. to a hero's welcome, though many deplored his egotism. He was twice (1948, 1952) seriously considered for the Republican Party nomination for president.

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(born Jan. 26, 1880, Little Rock, Ark., U.S.—died April 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.) U.S. general. Son of Gen. Arthur MacArthur (1845–1912), he graduated from West Point, of which he became superintendent (1919–22). He rose through the ranks to become general and army chief of staff (1930–35). In 1932 he commanded the troops that evicted the Bonus Army. In 1937 he took over command of the Philippine military. At the outbreak of World War II he was recalled to active duty; he led the combined Philippine-U.S. forces in the Philippines until it was overrun by the Japanese (1942). From Australia, he commanded U.S. forces in the South Pacific and directed the recapture of strategic islands, returning as promised (“I shall return”) to liberate the Philippines in 1944. Promoted to general of the army, he received Japan's surrender on Sept. 2, 1945. As Allied commander of the postwar occupation of Japan (1945–51), he directed the restoration of the country's economy and the drafting of a democratic constitution. As commander of UN forces in the Korean War in 1950, he stemmed the advance of North Korean troops. His request for authority to bomb China was rejected by Pres. Harry Truman; when MacArthur made the dispute public, Truman relieved him of his command, for insubordination. He returned to the U.S. to a hero's welcome, though many deplored his egotism. He was twice (1948, 1952) seriously considered for the Republican Party nomination for president.

Learn more about MacArthur, Douglas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

MacArthur is a census-designated place (CDP) in Raleigh County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,693 at the 2000 census.

Geography

MacArthur is located at (37.757180, -81.211114).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.0 square miles (7.7 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,695 people, 714 households, and 496 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 571.4 people per square mile (220.8/km²). There were 783 housing units at an average density of 264.3/sq mi (102.1/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.52% White, 0.41% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, and 0.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population.

There were 714 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $29,607, and the median income for a family was $34,167. Males had a median income of $31,208 versus $21,346 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $17,150. About 10.6% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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