Oyé-Mba was born in Nzamaligué, Komo-Mondah Department in Estuaire Province. He joined the Central Bank of the States of Equatorial Africa and Cameroon (BCEAEC) in January 1968; in January 1970, he became deputy manager of its agency in Libreville, Gabon, and in April 1970 he became director of the Libreville agency. In 1973, when the BCEAEC became the Bank of Central African States (BEAC), Oyé-Mba became its national director for Gabon, and in January 1977 he became Assistant General Director of BEAC at its headquarters in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In April 1978, he became Governor of BEAC, remaining in this post until 1990.
Oyé-Mba was appointed Prime Minister on April 27 1990 following the National Conference of that year. In the parliamentary election held later in 1990, he won a seat in the National Assembly from Komo-Mondah Department in Estuaire Province, and following the election he was retained as Prime Minister in November. In the December 1993 presidential election, which was won by Bongo, Oyé-Mba was Bongo's campaign manager, and when a new government was named in March 1994 he remained Prime Minister. Following the signing of an agreement with the opposition later that year, Oyé-Mba and his government resigned on October 11 1994 and were replaced by a new coalition government headed by Paulin Obame-Nguema on November 2. At this time Oyé-Mba became Minister of State in charge of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in Obame-Nguema's government and served in that position until January 1999. He became Minister of State in charge of Planning, Development Programming and Regional Planning in the government of Prime Minister Jean-François Ntoutoume Emane on January 25 1999, remaining in that position for nearly nine years.
He was re-elected to the National Assembly in the December 1996 parliamentary election and in the December 2001 parliamentary election. In the December 2002 municipal elections, he was elected as a member of the city council in Ntoum.