Marcos

Marcos

[mahr-kohs]
Bozzaris, Marcos, c.1788-1823, Greek patriot. Exiled from his native Epirus in 1803, he joined Ali Pasha in 1820 and later was prominent in the Greek War of Independence, notably in the defense of Mesolóngion (1822-23) and at Karpenísion, where he defeated the Turks with a handful of men but died in battle.
Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin, 1917-89, Philippine political leader. A lawyer and aide to Manuel Roxas (1946-47), he was elected to congress in 1949, serving in the House of Representatives (1949-59) and Senate (1959-65). Formerly a Liberal, he broke with the party in 1965 and won the presidential election the same year as a nominee of the Nationalist party, defeating (1965) Diosdado Macapagal. As president, Marcos maintained close ties with the United States. He launched (Aug., 1969) major military campaigns against Communist insurgents (see Hukbalahap) and in Mindanao against Moro rebels (Muslims). He was reelected in 1969, and his second term was marked by increasing civil strife. In 1972, following a series of bombings in Manila, Marcos warned of imminent Communist takeover and declared martial law. In 1973, he assumed virtual dictatorial control with a new constitution. His regime's increasing isolation, fed by widespread corruption and the extravagance of his wife, Imelda, culminated with the assassination of Benigno Aquino (1983) on his return to the country. The opposition united behind Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, who ran against Marcos in the 1986 election. Marcos was declared the winner but was widely suspected of electoral fraud. Protests drove Marcos into exile, and Aquino became president. After substantial evidence of Marcos's corruption emerged, he and his wife, who had served in his government, were indicted for embezzlement in the United States. Marcos died in Hawaii. After her husband's death Imelda Marcos was found innocent (1990) of embezzlement by a U.S. court. She was convicted of graft in a trial in the Philippines in 1993 but that was overturned on appeal in 1998, and other trials have ended in acquittals or overturned guilty verdicts. In 2003, however, the government was awarded $650 million from frozen banks accounts in Switzerland that had belonged to Ferdinand Marcos.

See R. P. Guzman and M. A. Reforma, Government and Politics in the Philippines (1988); R. L. Youngblood, Marcos against the Church (1990).

Pérez Jiménez, Marcos, 1914-2001, president of Venezuela (1952-58). As an army captain he took part in the coup that installed (1945) the Democratic Action party in power, but he subsequently objected to its leftist reforms and was a member of the three-man junta that overthrew President Rómulo Gallegos in 1948. After one of the junta members was mysteriously killed, he emerged (1952) as self-appointed president. He imposed a corrupt dictatorship marked by virulent anti-Communism and brutal repression, and spent money lavishly on highways and tourist attractions, especially in Caracas. He was ousted by a popular revolt in Jan., 1958. He lived in exile in Miami, Fla., until 1963, when he was extradited to Venezuela on charges of embezzling some $200 million during his presidential tenure. He was imprisoned (1963-68) and after his release lived in exile in Spain.

(born Sept. 11, 1917, Sarrat, Phil.—died Sept. 28, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.) Philippine head of state (1966–86). The son of a politician, he practiced as a trial lawyer before serving under Manuel Roxas, the first president of the independent Philippines. He was himself elected president in 1966. In his first term he made progress in agriculture, industry, and education, but in 1972 he imposed martial law, and his later years in power were noted for rampant government corruption, economic stagnation, political repression, and the steady growth of a communist insurgency. Following public outcry over the assassination of the opposition leader Benigno Aquino (1932–83) and Marcos's apparently fraudulent electoral victory over Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, Marcos was forced into exile in Hawaii, U.S. There he and his wife, Imelda, were indicted on racketeering charges related to embezzling billions of dollars from the Philippine economy. After his death she returned to the Philippines, where she was tried and convicted of corruption; the ruling was later overturned.

Learn more about Marcos, Ferdinand (Edralin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 11, 1917, Sarrat, Phil.—died Sept. 28, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.) Philippine head of state (1966–86). The son of a politician, he practiced as a trial lawyer before serving under Manuel Roxas, the first president of the independent Philippines. He was himself elected president in 1966. In his first term he made progress in agriculture, industry, and education, but in 1972 he imposed martial law, and his later years in power were noted for rampant government corruption, economic stagnation, political repression, and the steady growth of a communist insurgency. Following public outcry over the assassination of the opposition leader Benigno Aquino (1932–83) and Marcos's apparently fraudulent electoral victory over Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, Marcos was forced into exile in Hawaii, U.S. There he and his wife, Imelda, were indicted on racketeering charges related to embezzling billions of dollars from the Philippine economy. After his death she returned to the Philippines, where she was tried and convicted of corruption; the ruling was later overturned.

Learn more about Marcos, Ferdinand (Edralin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Historic site, northeastern Florida, U.S. Established in 1924, it is the 25-acre (10-hectare) site of the oldest masonry fort in the U.S., built by the Spanish (1672–95) to protect St. Augustine. The fort played an important role in the Spanish-English struggle for the Southeast (circa 1670–1763). In the 19th century it served as a U.S. military prison.

Learn more about Castillo de San Marcos National Monument with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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People with the given name Marcos

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* Marcos Mantis GT, a sports car
* Mini Marcos, a Mini-based kit car

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