Technically, RAF, MEK and MAPK are all mitogen-activated kinases, as is MNK (see below). MAPK was originally called "extracellular signal-regulated kinases" (ERKs) and microtubule-associated protein kinase (MAPK). One of the first proteins known to be phosphorylated by ERK was a microtubule-associated protein. As discussed below, many additional targets for phosphorylation by MAPK were later found and the protein was re-named "mitogen-activated protein kinase" (MAPK). The series of kinases from RAF to MEK to MAPK is an example of a protein kinase cascade. Such series of kinases provide opportunities for feedback regulation and signal amplification.
MAPK regulates the activities of several transcription factors. MAPK can phosphorylate C-myc. MAPK phosphorylates and activates MNK which in turn phosphorylates CREB. MAPK also regulates the transcription of the Fos gene. By altering the levels and activities of transcription factors, MAPK leads to altered transcription of genes that are important for the cell cycle.
Requirement for MAPK Activation for Normal Mitotic Progression in Xenopus Egg Extracts.(mitogen-activated protein kinase )
Nov 13, 1998; Mitosis is initiated by the activation of Cdc2-cyclin complexes. In Xenopus egg extracts, three mitotic Cdc2-cyclin complexes...
Inhibition of p38[alpha] MAPK rescues cardiomyopathy induced by overexpressed [[beta].sub.2]-adrenergic receptor, but not [[beta].sub.1]-adrenergic receptor.(Research article)
May 01, 2007; We examined the role of p38[alpha] MAPK in mediating cardiomyopathy in mice overexpressing [[beta].sub.1]-adrenergic...