Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams
(born July 231912
) is an American literary critic
, known for works on Romanticism
, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp
. Under Abrams' editorship, the Norton Anthology of English Literature
became the standard text for undergraduate survey courses across the U.S. and a major trendsetter in literary canon formation.
Abrams was born in a Jewish family in Long Branch, New Jersey. The son of a house painter and the first in his family to go to college, he entered Harvard University as an undergraduate in 1930. He went into English because, he says, "there weren't jobs in any other profession, so I thought I might as well enjoy starving, instead of starving while doing something I didn't enjoy." After earning his baccalaureate in 1934, Abrams won a Henry fellowship to the University of Cambridge, where his tutor was I.A. Richards. He returned to Harvard for graduate school in 1935 and received his Masters' degree in 1937 and his PhD in 1940. During WWII, he served at the Psycho-Acoustics Laboratory at Harvard. He describes his work as solving the problem of voice communications in a noisy military environment by establishing military codes that are highly audible and inventing selection tests for personnel who had a superior ability to recognize sound in a noisy background. In 1945 Abrams became a professor at Cornell University. As of March 4th, 2008, he was Class of 1916 Professor of English Emeritus there.
Thesis of the "Mirror and the Lamp"
In a powerful contrast, Abrams shows that until the Romantics, literature was usually understood as a
mirror, reflecting the real world, in some kind of mimesis; but for the Romantics, writing was more like a lamp: the light of the writer's inner soul spilled out to illuminate the world.
Classification of Literary Theories in "The Mirror and the Lamp"
Literary theories, Abrams argues, can be divided into four main groups:
- Mimetic Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Universe)
- Pragmatic Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Audience)
- Expressive Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Artist)
- Objective Theories (interested in close reading of the Work)
- The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (1953) ISBN 978-0-19-501471-6
- The Poetry of Pope: A Selection (1954) ISBN 978-0-88295-067-9
- Literature and Belief: English Institute Essays, 1957. (1957) editor ISBN 978-0-231-02278-1
- A Glossary of Literary Terms (1958; 7th ed. 1999) ISBN 978-0-15-505452-3
- English Romantic Poets: Modern Essays In Criticism (1960) ISBN 978-0-19-501946-9
- Norton Anthology of English Literature (1962) founding editor, many later editions
- The Milk of Paradise: The Effect of Opium Visions on the Works of DeQuincey, Crabbe, Francis Thompson, and Coleridge (1970) ISBN 978-0-374-90028-1
- Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature (1971) ISBN 978-0-393-04305-1
- The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism (1984) ISBN 978-0-393-30340-7
- Doing Things with Texts: Essays in Criticism and Critical Theory (1989) ISBN 978-0-393-02713-6
- Lawrence Lipking, editor (1981) High Romantic Argument: Essays For M.H. Abrams ISBN 978-0-8014-1307-0