Luxemburg

Luxemburg

[luhk-suhm-burg; Ger. look-suhm-boork]
Luxemburg, Rosa, 1871-1919, German revolutionary, b. Russian Poland. Her revolutionary activities forced her to flee to Switzerland in 1889, where she became a Marxist. One of the founders of the Polish Socialist party (1892), she formed (1894) a splinter group (later known as the Social Democratic party of Poland and Lithuania). Acquiring German citizenship through marriage, after 1898 she was a leader in the German Social Democratic party (SPD). She opposed Bernstein's moderate socialism, insisting on the overthrow of capitalism. However, she disagreed with Lenin on the composition of the revolutionary classes, while anticipating his formulation on imperialism. She participated in the revolution of 1905 in Russian Poland and was active in the Second International, working with Lenin to demand socialist opposition to war, while using it for revolution. Opposing the SPD's support for the war, she formed the German Spartacus party with Karl Liebknecht. In protective custody during much of the war and released in 1918 upon the outbreak of the German revolution, she aided in the transformation of the Spartacists into the German Communist party and edited its organ, Rote Fahne. Critical of Lenin in his triumph, she foresaw his dictatorship over the proletariat becoming permanent. For their part in the Spartacist uprising in Berlin, she and Liebknecht were arrested (Jan., 1919). While being taken to prison they were killed by soldiers.

See her Rosa Luxemburg Speaks, ed. with an introd. by M. A. Waters (1970) and The National Question, ed. and tr. by H. B. Davis (1976); and biographies by J. P. Nettl (1966, abr. ed. 1989), P. Frölich (tr. 1970), S. Bonner (1987), and E. Ettinger (1987).

Luxemburg. For the grand duchy, province, and city thus named, use Luxembourg.

Rosa Luxemburg.

(born March 5, 1871, Zamość, Pol., Russian Empire—died Jan. 15, 1919, Berlin, Ger.) Polish-born German political radical, intellectual, and author. As a Jew in Russian-controlled Poland, she was drawn early into underground political activism. In 1889 she fled to Zürich, Switz., where she obtained her doctorate. Having become involved in the international socialist movement, in 1892 she cofounded what would become the Polish Communist Party. The Russian Revolution of 1905 convinced her that the world revolution would originate in Russia. She advocated the mass strike as the proletariat's most important tool. Imprisoned in Warsaw for agitation, she then moved to Berlin to teach and write (1907–14). Early in World War I she cofounded the Spartacus League (see Spartacists), and in 1918 she oversaw its transformation into the German Communist Party; she was murdered during the Spartacus Revolt less than a month later. She believed in a democratic path to socialism after a world revolution to overthrow capitalism and opposed what she recognized as Vladimir Ilich Lenin's emerging dictatorship.

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Rosa Luxemburg.

(born March 5, 1871, Zamość, Pol., Russian Empire—died Jan. 15, 1919, Berlin, Ger.) Polish-born German political radical, intellectual, and author. As a Jew in Russian-controlled Poland, she was drawn early into underground political activism. In 1889 she fled to Zürich, Switz., where she obtained her doctorate. Having become involved in the international socialist movement, in 1892 she cofounded what would become the Polish Communist Party. The Russian Revolution of 1905 convinced her that the world revolution would originate in Russia. She advocated the mass strike as the proletariat's most important tool. Imprisoned in Warsaw for agitation, she then moved to Berlin to teach and write (1907–14). Early in World War I she cofounded the Spartacus League (see Spartacists), and in 1918 she oversaw its transformation into the German Communist Party; she was murdered during the Spartacus Revolt less than a month later. She believed in a democratic path to socialism after a world revolution to overthrow capitalism and opposed what she recognized as Vladimir Ilich Lenin's emerging dictatorship.

Learn more about Luxemburg, Rosa with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Luxemburg is a city in Dubuque County, Iowa, United States. It is part of the 'Dubuque, Iowa Metropolitan Statistical Area'. The population was 246 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Luxemburg is located at (42.604830, -91.076542).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 246 people, 92 households, and 72 families residing in the city. The population density was 540.2 people per square mile (206.5/km²). There were 94 housing units at an average density of 206.4/sq mi (78.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White.

There were 92 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.7% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,833, and the median income for a family was $46,667. Males had a median income of $26,042 versus $19,643 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,314. None of the population or families were below the poverty line.

References

External links

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