) is a word that means wind or breath. It is a key concept in the Vajrayana
traditions of Tibetan Buddhism
and as such is part of the symbolic 'twilight language
', used to non-conceptually point to a variety of meanings. Lung
is a concept that's particularly important to understandings of the subtle body
and the Three Vajras
(body, speech and mind). Tibetan medicine
practitioner Dr Tamdin Sither Bradley provides a summary:
The general description of rLung is that it is a subtle flow of energy and out of the five elements (air, fire, water, earth and space) it is most closely connected with air. However it is not simply the air which we breathe or the wind in our stomachs, it goes much deeper than that. rLung is like a horse and the mind is the rider, if there is something wrong with the horse the rider will not be able to ride properly. Its description is that it is rough, light, cool, thin, hard, movable. The general function of rLung is to help growth, movement of the body, exhalation and inhalation and to aid the function of mind, speech and body. rLung helps to separate in our stomachs what we eat into nutrients and waste products. However its most important function is to carry the movements of mind, speech and body. The nature of rLung is both hot and cold.
Some of the different usuages of the term lung
, a discipline practiced throughout the Himalayan
region, identifies a system of 'The Five Lung' which help to regulate the human body:
- 'Life-grasping lung' (Tibetan:Srog 'dzin rlung' alt.: Strog Zin) is located in the brain. This lung regulates swallowing, inhalation, spitting, eructation, sneezing, and generally clearing the senses and steadying of the mind and concentration.
- 'Upward moving lung' (Tibetan:Gyen-rgyu rlung) is located in the chest and thorax. This lung regulates speech, energy to work, body weight, memory, the increase of bodily vigour and health, complexion and the skin lustre, mental endeavour and diligence.
- 'All pervading lung' (Tibetan:Khyab-byed rlung) is located is in the heart. This lung regulates lifting, walking, stretching and the contraction of muscles: opening and closing of the mouth, eyelids, anus etc.
- 'Fire accompanying lung' (Tibetan:Me-mnyam rlung') is located is in the stomach and abdomen area. This lung regulates digestion and the metabolism. This lung also ripens the Seven Bodily Sustainers (Tibetan: lus-zung dhun).
- 'Downward cleansing lung' (Tibetan:Thur-sel rlung) is located in the rectum, bowels and perineal region and its function is to expel faeces, urine, semen, menstruation, uterine contractions and the foetus.
views the human body as consisting of a coarse body made of six constituent elements of earth, water, fire, wind, space and consciousness and also of a subtle body
, or 'Vajra body', of energy-winds, energy-channels and energy-drops.There are many types of wind or 'subtle breath' that move along the invisible channels of the subtle body
. The 'vital breath' (Tibetan:sog lung
) is considered the most important. It is "the essence of life itself that animates and sustains all living beings". Anuttarayoga Tantra
practices from the Mahamudra
meditation system, such as Guhyasamaja
, provide various methods to penetrate the vital points of the Subtle Body. Dalai Lama XIV
summarises the practice: "To penetrate these points means to gather there the energy-winds and the subtle minds that ride on them, basically by means of different types of absorbed concentration focused on these spots.. Practices that work with the subtle energy winds includes tummo
or 'Inner Fire', one of the Six Yogas of Naropa
. In this practice, the yogin
uses breathing and meditation techniques to draw the lung or subtle winds into the central channel and hold them there, traversing the body vertically.
; Tib. rtsa rlung
; where "rtsa" denotes an energetic channel) are special yogic exercises. The exercises are used in the Tibetan Bön
tradition and the Nyingma
and Drikung Kagyu
schools of Tibetan Buddhism
. Tsa lung Trul khor
employs the tsa lung
and they constitute the internal yantra
or sacred architecture
of this yoga's alternate nomenclature, Yantra Yoga
. Tsa lung
are also employed in Kye-rim
The exercises are used:
That coincides with mind releasing dualistic misperceptions and abiding in non-dual awareness of rigpa (Tib. rig pa). Detailed instructions on the exercises describe 3 levels of rtsa rlung: external, internal and secret.
Each level contains 5 exercises corresponding to five elements.
Dr Arya (2006) defines "Tsa" in relation to shunyata
Tsa, 'channel' means hollow tube where blood, wind and consciousness can pass freely, for example body cavities such as blood vessels, the mouth and hollow organs. Tsa is a symbol of space, and it gives space to the consciousness and other components of body/mind to manifest themselves under transcendental and dualistic forms and colors. It is like a house for the consciousness. The space is limitless and boundless therefore its symbolic sign is the zero. Everything manifests from this zero or space and also dissolves into it. For example, in mathematics, the zero keeps the first space for no. 1, which goes until 9 and returns back to the zero. It shows that all phenomena existence have the same space origin and ends at the same place. In fact, there is nothing which comes or goes to that state. Therefore Buddhism, as a symbolic language, calls Shunyata (voidness) what draws round zero. The space is a Thikle (round) in Tibetan, and Bindu in [S]anskrit. It is the cause of the particle as well as the unlimited space nature. It is the base for everything and the innate nature of emptiness. This is called space particles as well as symbol of the body channels.