City (pop., 2001: 2,185,927), capital of Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located on the Gomati River southeast of Delhi. It was captured by the Mughal ruler Bābur in 1528 and under his grandson Akbar became part of Oudh province. In 1775 it became the capital of Oudh. Lucknow is now an important rail centre with paper factories and other industrial development. Notable sites include the Great Imambara (tomb) of one of the nabobs of Oudh, the Residency where the British were besieged during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, and the University of Lucknow.
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Located in what was historically known as the Awadh region, Lucknow has always been a multicultural city. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronized by the Persian-loving Shia Nawabs of the city are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history. Lucknow is popularly known as the The City of Nawabs. It is also known as the Golden City of the East, Shiraz-i-Hind and The Constantinople of India.
Today, Lucknow is a vibrant city that is witnessing an economic boom and is among the top ten fastest growing non-major-metropolitan cities of India. It is a centre of Hindi and Urdu literature and is the second largest city in Uttar Pradesh state.
After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of Awadh region have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow has been one of the major centers of First War of Independence, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India.
Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow.
Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.
Lucknow's rise to growth and fame begins with its elevation as capital of Awadh by Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah. He was a great philanthropist and gave Lucknow a unique and enduring legacy. The architectural contributions of these Awadh rulers include several imposing monuments. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb..
In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.
The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner - Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadr son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.
Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.
The city played an important role in both the First War of Independence and the modern Indian freedom struggle. Whether it was the Lucknow Pact of 1916 or the Khilafat Movement it brought the citizens on a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Freedom fighter and one of the most great parliamentarians, Firoj Gandhi was also releted to the city.
In 1901, after staying the capital of Oudh, since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.
The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Collector, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.
The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow also called the City Mayor. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.
The Lucknow Police is headed by a Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers.
Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee is the sitting MP for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency.
Lucknow also provides a good catchment area for the recruitment of quality personnel by information technology companies for the BPO hubs of nearby Noida and Gurgaon as well as for Bangalore and Hyderabad.
The city is the headquarters of both the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) and the Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP). The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here.
The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amousi.
Lucknow is one of the few Indian cities that follows vertical outgrowth plan like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Gazhiabad. The city boasts handsome skylines in Gomti Nagar, Hazrat Ganj and Kapoorthala. The highest under-construction building is Sahara Hospital which will have 35 floors followed by Metro City (30 floors), Parshvanath Planet (25 floors) and Omaxe Heights (23 floors). Presently the highest buildings are Shakti Bhawan (21 floors) and OCR (20 floors). The city boasts a high property expansion rate. It is expected that city will have a $2.5 billion organised real estate by 2010,hiegest in North India except NCR.
Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and Lakhnawi Zardozi, both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywood and abroad.
During the period of the Nawabs, kite-making reached a high level of artistry, and is still a small-scale industry. Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and handicrafts such as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carving products.
Lucknow, with its excellent educational, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors. Private coaching institutions for preparing aspirants of competitive exams and services is another business that is flourishing in Lucknow.
Lucknow houses hundreds of established real estate brands and dozens of niche and specialised developers like High-end premium residential projects, Malls, IT parks, Commercial property, SEZs, Plots, Business centres, Multiplexes, Clubs, Banks, Food courts, Entertainment centres and Finance institutions.
All the major public and private sector banks of India, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and foreign banks like Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN-AMRO and HSBC have their presence in the city. The big oil marketing companies like Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleum and Reliance have their offices in Lucknow.
Leading IT companies like TCS and IBM are also operating in Lucknow. The Regional Manager of Tata Consultancy Services is Jayant Krishna. The Ministry of Communications & Information Technology has set up Software Technology Parks of India in 2001 which is playing an important role to promote IT/ITes Units in the region. Insurance companies, both public and private, as well as leading cellular phone companies are present in the city as well.
Currently, biotechnology and information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology is setting up a biotech park in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the Smart City project of STPI, under which IT is being used to promote economic development.
The Asafi Imambara (popularly known as Bara Imambara), the Chhota Imambara, Residency, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil, State Museum / Lucknow Zoo, Shaheed Smarak, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetarium, Baradari and Ram Krishna Math.
The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), the Clock Tower and the Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars.
St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow.
Some of the oldest schools in India are also situated in Lucknow: La Martiniere Lucknow,Loreto Convent Lucknow and the Colvin Taluqdar's College.Amiruddaula islamia Inter collge is about 100 years old.
Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in Gomti Nagar, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river is also worth visiting.
The city also has the Kukrail Reserve Forest(a picnic spot and Gharial rehabilitation centre). Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots.
Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are Alambagh, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar, Mahanagar and Nishatganj.
The Hazratganj area is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganj market. It is popularly referred to in Hinglish as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.
Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplex like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Fun Republic (Fun Cinemas) , Riverside Mall (Inox Theatre) and East End Mall (Wave Cinemas).
The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the Gomti River. The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomti side are Hazratganj, Alambagh, RDSO Colony, Charbagh, Aishbagh, Kaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh, Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk and Saadatganj.
The residential settlements in the Trans-Gomti area are Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old and New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar, Manas Enclave near kukrail picnic spot, Gomti Nagar and Gomti Nagar Extn., Nilmatha cantt. Vikas Nagar and Janakipuram.
Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is among the most crowded place of Lucknow.
Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The Pehle-Aap (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow's society still possesses such etiquette. This sublime cultural richness famous as Lakhnawi tehzeeb blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.
Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication.
Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Shiite culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Shia elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.
In recent years the use of Urdu has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this charming city. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow, was largely influenced by poetry and wrote verses under the pen name of "Bismil". The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and literateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi.
Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.
The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.
From authentic restaurants like 'Oudhyana', 'Zaika', 'Royal Cafe', 'Falaknuma', 'Dastarkhwan', 'Daal Mein Kaala', 'Tundeys' and 'Rahims' in the Akbari Gate area and 'Naushi-Jaan' to fastfood joints like Pizza Hut and McDonalds, the choice is wide.
Makkhan Malai, 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk , the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali, and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers.
The Chaat in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj, Radhey Lal in Aliganj, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar.
After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.
Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.
Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.
The Bhatkande music university at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.
Lucknow has given music legends like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also incidentally the birthplace of British pop legend Sir Cliff Richard.
Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city. Gulli Danda has become a benchmark for the youth to achieve.
The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College.
The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is one of the most famous golf courses in India.
The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced national-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Suresh Raina and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.
Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah was also partly shot in Lucknow.
Bahu Begum, Mehboob ki Mehndi, Mere Hazoor, Mere Mehboob, Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Pakeezah, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, Saher, and many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops.
Lucknow is a hub of education and research with many premier institutions.
Higher education institutions in the city include six universities—UPTU, LU, RMLNLU, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity University and Integral University; medical institutes like Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (CSMMU) and ERA's Lucknow Medical College; and management institutes like IIM Lucknow and Jaipuria Institute of Management.
Private schools in Lucknow—which employ either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of two administering bodies: the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE). Public schools employ the UP Board of Education. Lucknow is home to prestigious schools such as La Martinière College, Loreto Convent, St. Francis, City Montessori School, Spring Dale College and Jaipuria. After completing the ten-year secondary phase of their education under the 10+2+3 plan, students typically spend the next two years either in junior colleges or in schools with senior secondary facilities, during which their studies become more focused. They select a stream of study—liberal arts, commerce, science, or, less commonly, vocational. Upon completion, those who choose to continue, either study for a 3-year undergraduate degree at a college, or a professional degree in law, engineering, or medicine.
Notable higher education or research institutes in Lucknow include Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) (Formerly : Industial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC)), Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR) and Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany
The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and CNG Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control. The city bus service is run by Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).
Lucknow has good road, rail and air links with the rest of the country.
From Hazratganj intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Raksa, Jhansi(M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar). The major bus terminus is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar bus station at Alambagh. It has all modern facilities and is the main inter and intrastate terminal. Another important bus station is at Kaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminus operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but has now been reestablished as a city bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station.
The city is served by several Railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway(NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori.
The Amausi International Airport serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai and other major Indian cities. Oman Air and Cosmo Air are a few international airlines that are successfully operating direct international flights from Lucknow to international destinations & vice versa. International destinations include London, Dubai, Jeddah, Muscat and Sharjah. Flights to Bangkok Singapore and Hong Kong may also commence soon. During Haj special flights are also operated from Lucknow.
The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi, Urdu, and English are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta and I Next. The main Urdu papers are Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Qaumi Khabrein and Aag.
FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations. -