Lubawa Commune

Lubawa

Note: Lubawa, Poland, the formerly Löbau in Westpreußen, Germany, is sometimes confused with Löbau in Lusatia, Saxony, Germany


Lubawa [] (Löbau in Westpreußen) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland. It is located in Iława County on the Sandela River, some 18 km southeast of Iława.

History

In 1214 the local Prussian landlord Surwabuno was christened by Christian of Oliva, the first Catholic bishop of Prussia. The latter is nowadays featured on the coat of arms of Lubawa. The town was first mentioned in a papal bull of January 18, 1216, issued by Pope Innocent III. Soon afterwards a wooden castle was built. Within the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, the Bishopric of Culm was created in 1243 by William of Modena. In 1257 the town became a property of the church and the seat of the bishops of Culm (Chełmno). In 1268 the castle was destroyed. Between 1301 and 1326 a new castle was built of stone by the local bishop named Arnold. In 1330 it was destroyed by an invasion of Lithuanian forces of Gediminas, but was rebuilt. The town of Löbau was captured by the Kingdom of Poland after the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 but returned to Prussia once the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War ended. However the surrounding Land of Löbau had gone partially to Masovia in the south (see map of 1600s Prussia below).

After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) ending the Thirteen Years' War, the town of Löbau became Warmia administered and soon afterwards became a centre of local trade and commerce. As such it became one of the seats of the bishops of Warmia. In 1533 it was razed to the ground by a great fire mentioned by Erasmus of Rotterdam, but it was soon rebuilt and between 1535 and 1539 Nicolaus Copernicus lived in the local castle. In 1545 the town and the castle were yet again destroyed by a fire.

The town gained significant profits from the trade. In 1627 the castle was refurbished and became a Baroque style palace of Bishop Jan Zadzik. By 1640 construction of water works and sewers had been completed. The town was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772 through the First Partition of Poland. Part of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807-13) during the Napoleonic Wars, the town was restored to the Kingdom of Prussia after the dissolution of the duchy. In 1815 the palace was destroyed by a fire and in 1826 its walls were demolished. In 1871 it became a part of the Prussian-led German Empire. On January 19, 1920, following the Treaty of Versailles, the town was made part of the Second Polish Republic. During the Nazi occupation during World War II, it housed a German concentration camp for children. It was liberated on January 21, 1945.

Economy

Lubawa is an important centre of furniture industry. Also, a "Lubawa S.A." company is located there, which is the biggest Polish producer of military equipment such as bullet proof vests, currently used by the Polish Army and the Polish press.

Tourism

Lubawa is a centre of local tourism. The "Wzgórza Lubawskie" forest reserve is located only some ten kilometres westwards and the picturesque Drwęca River flows some five kilometres to the west. Also, the nearby battlefield of the Battle of Grunwald attracts many tourists, both from Poland and from abroad, mostly from Germany.

Tourist attractions

  1. Monument to child prisoners of Nazi Germany
  2. two 15th century towers
  3. Parts of city walls from 14th century
  4. Ruins of a Gothic castle
  5. St. Ann's Church from 1330
  6. St. John's Church from 1496–1507, rebuilt in 1603-10
  7. wooden St. Barbara's Church from 1779, built in Baroque style
  8. 19th century houses
  9. Łazienki Miejskie park
  10. remnants of wooden sewer system, designed by Nicolaus Copernicus according to a local urban legend

External links


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